So if that college English professor above mentions having played basketball in

So if that college english professor above mentions

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a common sense of identity with their audience, then the rhetor is using a pathetic appeal. So if that college English professor above mentions having played basketball in high school and convinces the audience that she or he was pretty good, then not only does that fact strengthen the rhetor's ethos, it also makes a pathetic appeal. (This is also why so many politicans will open their speeches with "My fellow Americans..." This is why many of them use the phrase "My friends..." so much when speaking to audiences.) "Pathos" most often refers to an attempt to engage an audience's emotions. Think about the different emotions people are capable of feeling: they include love, pity, sorrow, affection, anger, fear, greed, lust, and hatred. If a rhetor tries to
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Williams 5 make an audience feel emotions in response to what is being said or written, then they are using pathos. Example Let's say a rhetor is trying to convince an audience of  middle-class Americans to donate money to a hurricane relief  fund. The rhetor can make pathetic appeals to an audience's  feelings of love, pity, fear, and perhaps anger. (The extent to  which any of these emotions will be successfully engaged will  vary from audience to audience.) o "Love" will be felt if the audience can be made to believe in their fundamental connections to other human beings. o "Pity" will be felt if the plight of the homeless hurricane victim can be made very vivid to the audience. o "Fear" will be felt if the audience can be made to imagine what they would feel like in that homeless victim's place. o "Anger" will be felt if the audience realizes how little has been done by those who are resonsible for helping. If the rhetor works all of these things together properly (and also doesn't screw up ethos and logos), then the audience is more likely to be persuaded. Mistakes to avoid The emotions we're talking about here are  emotions that might be felt by the audience, not emotions felt by the rhetor. If a rhetor is clearly angry about the topic being  addressed, for example, that should not be taken as a pathetic.  However, if the rhetor is clearly trying to make the audience  feel angry, then that should, in fact, be considered a pathetic  appeal. And whether or not the audience does, in fact, feel the  emotions in question, the observer can still recognize when the  rhetor is using a pathetic appeal. Sometimes, the pathetic appeal is weak (meaning it probably won't succeed). Sometimes, the  pathetic appeal is strong (meaning it probably will succeed). Logos The use of logos is called a "logical appeal." A statement does not have to be considered logical to be a logical appeal. As an observer, you can recognize that the rhetor is attempting to use logos to persuade the audience, but that recognition doesn't mean the rhetor is succeeding. We use the term logos to describe what kind of rhetorical appeal is being made, not to evaluate whether or not an appeal makes sense to us (as observers) or to the audience being addressed.
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