The aatcc tes method has been used to evaluate the

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binder (citric acid) 8 %, temperature 55 °C, and time 30 min. The AATCC test method has been used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the nanocapsule- fi nished fabric. The denim fabric fi nished with microcapsules and nanocapsules have been assessed for their wash durability and antibacterial activity evaluated. The binding of microcapsules and alignment on to the fabric have been con fi rmed by scanning electron microscopy. Advances in Nanotextile Finishes An Approach Towards Sustainability 11
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6 Determination of Antibacterial Activity of Finished Fabric The antibacterial activity has been evaluated for the fi nished fabric using AATCC test method against E. coli and S. aureus . The zone of inhibition for the fabrics fi nished with methanolic extract of R. communis, S. auriculata, and E. hirta is 0 (no bacterial growth), 25, and 24 mm, respectively, for E. coli and 27, 30, and 29 mm, respec- tively, for S. aureus . The methanolic extract of the herbs is able to impart antibacterial ef fi cacy to the fi nished fabric. Among the three herbs used, the methanolic extract of S. auriculata is found to give maximum antibacterial activity in comparison with the other two. The selected ratio of 1:3:2 of R. communis, S. auriculata, and E. hirta , respectively, is found to be the best combination. The fabric so treated is found to be strongly resistant to both Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. The bacterial growth is prevented by the treated fabrics. The values of the inhibition zone show that the herbal extracts prevent the bacterial growth under the fabric and also leaches out and kills the bacteria. In the case of E. coli , the bacterial growth rate is 2.7 × 10 9 cfu/mL, and for S. aureus , it is 2.4 × 10 9 cfu/mL. Antibacterial activity of ajwain seeds extract treated fabrics using qualitative and quantitative methods has also been reported (Benita 1996 ). Antibacterial property of extract alone clearly shows extended zone of inhibition (20 30 mm) for both types of microorganism (Gram positive and Gram negative) when analysed by AATCC (parallel streak method). Test results show that all treated fabrics have very good antimicrobial property to both S. aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae microorganisms. The treated fabrics do not allow the growth of bacteria under the test specimen. In all the cases, there is a good zone of inhibition ranging from 11.9 to 14.5 mm for S. aureus and from 6.9 to 7.1 mm for K. pneumoniae . It has been shown that the extracts from basil, clove, guava, jambolan, lemon balm, pome- granate, rosemary, and thyme exhibit antimicrobial activity to at least one of the tested microorganisms (Barari et al. 2009 ). The highest activities are seen in the extracts of clove and jambolan. In other words they are able to inhibit 9 (64.2 %) and 8 (57.1 %) kinds of microorganisms of interest, respectively. 6.1 Microencapsulation of Herbal Extract The effective herbal combination is microencapsulated using ionic gelatin technique so as to increase the durability of the fi nished fabric. The antibacterial activity of the fi nished fabric and the fabric after washes have been tested and the results are presented in Table 1 . It has been found that the microcapsules of the herbal
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  • Fall '19
  • N. Gokarneshan

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