Early 1982 reports were received of similar symptoms

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Early 1982 • Reports were received of similar Symptoms among IV Drug Users, Blood Transfusion Recipients, and their Sexual Partners AIDS is not a “Gay Disease”. It is a Sexually and Blood-to-Blood Transmitted Disease that happens to have been first introduced into the US Gay Population. • The CDC replaced the Term Gay-Related Immune Deficiency (GRID) with the Term Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) HIV had spilled out of the Bath House Culture and had entered both the IV Drug Blood-to-Blood Transmission Pool and -- with potentially disastrous Consequences -- the large Heterosexual Transmission Pool. 1983 • Luc Montagnier (Institute Pasteur) isolated a Retrovirus associated with Chronic Lymphadenopathy and termed it Lymphadenopathy Virus (LAV) • Jay Levy (UCSF) isolated a Retrovirus associated with AIDS and termed it AIDS-Related Virus (ARV) • An International Committee met and termed it Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV
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HIV/AIDS Page 3 Causative Agent • Human Immunodeficiency Virus - 100 nm in Diameter, 9.3 Kb Positive Sense RNA Virus Animal Reservoir • None - HIV only infects Humans In Theory, aggressive Antiretroviral Therapy, combined with Avoidance of Risky Sex and IV Drug Use, could eliminate HIV within a Decade. Mode of Transmission • Transmission is via Contaminated Blood - IV Drug Use - Sexual Transmission - Mother to Child - Blood Transfusion - Occupational Risk [Health Care Workers] HIV-Induced Immunosuppression (1) CD4 + T Cell Depletion • The reduction of CD4 + T Cells seems to be the major Factor inducing Immunosuppression. (2) Lymph Node Disruptions • Lymphoid Architecture will eventually become Disrupted Lymph Node Architecture is important for providing a suitable Environment for various Lymphocyte Interactions, including the Activation of both T Cells and B Cells. Disruption of this critical Structure weakens the Immune System. The first name given to HIV was Lymphadenopathy Virus. (3) Cytokine Imbalances • Expression of T H 1 Inflammatory T Cells is Down-Regulated - Depresses Cell-Mediated Responses • Expression of T H 2 Helper T Cells is Up-Regulated - Elevates Antibody-Mediated Responses
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HIV/AIDS Page 4 Diagnosis • HIV Antibody Test Tests for the Presence of Anti-SU and Anti-TM Antibodies) in Blood, Urine or Saliva (which generally appear within 3 Months of Infection) • Plasma HIV RNA Test (Viral Load Test) Tests for the Presence of HIV RNA and/or DNA in Blood (which generally appears within 9 Days of Infection) • Western Blot Tests for the Presence of HIV Proteins in Blood (TM and CA) Treatment Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) or Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART) employs a Combination of five (5) Classes of Antiretroviral Agents: • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) • Protease Inhibitors (PIs) • Fusion Inhibitors • CCR5 Antagonists • Integrase Inhibitors Prevention • Current Data indicate that early and strict Adherence to HAART can help prevent the Transmission of HIV • Avoidance of Risky Sexual Practices • Avoidance of IV Drug Use Impact
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