16 describe situations when cell respiration would be

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16. Describe situations when cell respiration would be used by cells and when fermentation would be used. What kinds of organisms could use both of these systems efficiently? 17. Differentiate fermentation from respiration. How much ATP does fermentation yield? When does fermentation occur? What are some of the by-products of fermentation? 18. How does cellular respiration interact with other metabolic pathways? How do other nutritional molecules (e.g. proteins and fats) get processed as fuel? 19. Describe the endosymbiotic theory of eukaryotic cell origin, including specific lines of evidence that supports the theory, and the evolutionary advantage of eukaryotic cells vs. prokaryotic cells.
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Things to know and think about – Photosynthesis: 1. Describe where photosynthesis takes place. In your description, start on the outside of the leaf and move in to exactly where the different “phases” of photosynthesis take place. 2. Know the internal structure of a chloroplast; where is the chlorophyll? 3. Be able to give a general description of the electromagnetic spectrum – what kinds of light excite electrons? 4. Be able to explain why plants are green as opposed to another color, and what roles are played by other plant pigments. 5. Explain how we might test what pigments are present in a plant’s tissues, and once identified how we might test their absorption. 6. Explain how energy moves through a photosystem (antenna complex and reaction center). 7. Understand the roles played by the antenna complex and reaction center in the capture of light energy. An electron is only excited by 680 or 700 nm, but pigments are absorbing a range of wavelengths of light – explain why the range of light can actually result in more photosynthetic activity than just 680 nm or 700 mn.
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