Chapter 11 - Solution Manual

Of the commodity the seller under that contract

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of the commodity), the seller under that contract (Seller) will have to find another buyer in the market to take delivery. If the price received by Seller in the market is less than the contract price, Seller incurs a loss equal to the quantity of the commodity that would have been delivered under the forward contract multiplied by the difference between the contract price and the current market price. Buyer must pay Seller a penalty for nonperformance equal to that loss. b. If Seller defaults (that is, does not deliver the commodity physically), Buyer will have to find another seller in the market. If the price paid by Buyer in the market is more than the contract price, Seller must pay Buyer a penalty for nonperformance equal to the quantity of the commodity that would have been delivered under the forward contract multiplied by the difference between the contract price and the current market price. 55-11For example, Buyer agreed to purchase 100 units of a commodity from Seller at $1.00 per unit: a. Assume Buyer defaults on the forward contract by not taking delivery and Seller must sell the 100 units in the market at the prevailing market price of $.75 per unit. To compensate Seller for the loss incurred due to Buyer’s default, Buyer must pay Seller a penalty of $25.00—that is, 100 units " ($1.00 – $.75). b. Similarly, assume that Seller defaults and Buyer must buy the 100 units it needs in the market at the prevailing market price of $1.30 per unit. To compensate Buyer for the loss incurred due to Seller’s default, Seller must pay Buyer a penalty of $30.00—that is, 100 units " ($1.30 – $1.00). 55-12Note that an asymmetrical default provision is designed to compensate the nondefaulting party for a loss incurred. The defaulting party cannot demand payment from the nondefaulting party to realize the changes in market price that would be favorable to the defaulting party if the contract were honored. 55-13Under the forward contract in the example, if Buyer defaults when the market price is $1.10, Seller will be able to sell the units of the commodity into the market at $1.10 and realize a $10.00 greater gain than it would have under the contract. In that circumstance, the defaulting Buyer is not required to pay a penalty for nonperformance to Seller, nor is Seller required to pass the $10.00 extra gain to the defaulting Buyer. 55-14Similarly, if Seller defaults when the market price is $.80, Buyer will be able to buy the units of the commodity in the market and pay $20.00 less than under the contract. In that circumstance, the defaulting Seller is not required to pay a penalty for nonperformance to Buyer, nor is Buyer required to pass the $20.00 savings on to the defaulting Seller.
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238 55-15In a forward contract with only an asymmetrical default provision, neither Buyer nor Seller can realize the benefits of changes in the price of the commodity through default on the contract. That is, Buyer cannot realize favorable changes in the intrinsic value of the forward contract except in both of the following circumstances: a. By taking delivery of the physical commodity b. In the event of default by Seller (which is an event beyond the control of Buyer).
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