Peer relationships some influence has to be from peer

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Peer relationships Some influence has to be from peer (starting in adolescence) Wanting to fit in can be a reason peer influence is important Gender (are boys or girls higher on self-esteem?) Male have higher self esteem Internal as well as external factors are factors of self esteem Many thing are negotiated when hit puberty. You see yourself different when go through physical changes. Family stress Style of conversation influences the self esteems when parents in stress. 10. What are the two essential features of identity development? Search Commitment 11. Describe the four kinds of identity status. How do they reflect the search for identity, and the commitment to a self-chosen identity?
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4 Identity diffusion: (no search; no commitment): not pondering questions of religious or political identity, and there’s no commitment . Foreclosure: (no search; commitment): No active process of self-reflection, but you knows who you are in one-way or another. We can assume an identity we assumed to be true for ourselves or that our parents assumed to be true etc. Moratorium: (search, no commitment): active engagement in a conscious search, but no commitment yet. Moratorium=good. Ex: taking a few years off before going to grad school. Identity achievement: (search; commitment) Gone through active searching, and arrived at a conclusion 12. What are some of the characteristics associated with identity status, such as the quality of parent-child relationships, self-esteem, and dependency? Foreclosed Diffused Moratorium Achieved Relations w/ Parents respectful withdrawn affectionate affectionate Self-Esteem low low high high Ethnic Identity strong medium medium strong Dependency high medium medium low 13. How does gender identity develop throughout childhood and adolescence? What are the major influences on the development of gender identity during this period? How does children's behavior become gender typed? What are the major influences by which this occurs? How are gender schemas important to the development of gender identity? Age 2 : can identify themselves and others correctly by sex, and begin to play in gender-typed and stereotyped ways. Age 5 : understand that sex is unchanging --> more gender-typed behavior because they are acquiring gender schemas and are trying to understand what their gender means. In middle childhood, kids continue to self-segregate in sex-specific groups. Girls interact with smaller groups; focus on support, relational competition and aggression. Adolescence: Forms of social interaction become more distinct, less self- segregation as gender identity intensifies, renewed interest in members of opposite sex. Influences: parental modeling & instruction, peer influences (predominant in relation to gender-role socialization), children’s conceptual growth and understanding (self-actualization), cultural values and beliefs about gender conveyed in many ways--social expectations are OVER socialized (children receive multiple redundant messages about ways it appropriate to act, behave, look. children are ACTIVELY participating in gender role identity.
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  • Spring '08
  • LEHMAN
  • Social Understanding and Self Awareness

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