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Areas with poverty unemployment and residential

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AREAS WITH POVERTY, UNEMPLOYMENT, AND RESIDENTIAL TURNOVER) FOUND THAT ZONE OF TRANSITION HAD HIGHEST CRIME RATE FOUND THAT ZONE OF TRANSITION HAD HIGHEST RATE OVER A NUMBER OF YEARS FOUND THIS TO BE TRUE REGARDLESS OF ETHNIC GROUP THAT MOVED IN THEREFORE, EARLY RESEARCH ESTABLISHED RELATIONSHIPS AMONG NEIGHBORHOOD LEVEL VARIABLES OF POVERTY, ETHNIC DIVERSITY AND RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY AND CRIME HOWEVER, THERE ARE PROBLEMS WITH THESE EARLY RESEARCH THE PROBLEMS: THE CONCEPT: WHAT IS SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION?
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DID NOT MEASURE INTERVENING VARIABLES MEASURE OF NEIGHBORHOOD MULTICOLLINEARITY CONTIGUOUS NEIGHBORHOODS STATIC VERSUS DYNAMIC ANALYSIS THE CONCEPT: WHAT IS SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION? WHAT IS SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION? PREVIOUS STUDIES HAVE USED HOUSES WITH PROSTITUTION AND HOMICIDE TO MEASURE SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION BUT SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION IS SAID TO PREDICT PROSTITUTION AND HOMICIDE THEREFORE, THIS IS TAUTOLOGICAL: CIRCULAR REASONING THIS REASONING DOES NOT PROVIDE US WITH ANY INFORMATION AND THEREFORE RESEARCHERS SHOULD FIGURE OUT HOW TO MEASURE THE CONCEPT OF SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION DID NOT MEASURE INTERVENING VARIABLES EX: RESIDENTAL MOBILITY LEAD TO CRIME THROUGH INFORMAL SOCIAL CONTROL THAT IS, RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY LEADS TO WEAK INFORMAL SOCIAL CONTROL, AND THEN CRIME EX: POVERTY LEAD TO CRIME THROUGH WEAK SOCIAL TIES THAT IS, POVERTY WEAKENS SOCIAL TIES, THEN CRIME OCCURS EX: LOW SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS LEADS TO CRIME THROUGH LACK OF SUPERVISION (LOW SES LEADS TO UNSUPERVISED TEENAGERS AND THEN CRIME OTHER MEASURES OF SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION? LOW SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS ETHNIC HETEROGENENITY RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY FAMILY DISRUPTION URBANIZATION CAN YOU THINK OF ANY OTHER MEASURES OF SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION? What is a neighborhood? The census uses tracts—artificial boundary lines, but are these tracts representative of a neighborhood? For example, neighbors living across the street from each can be classified in different tracts. MULTICOLLINEARITY RACE IS STRONGLY RELATED TO ECONOMIC STATUS DUE TO INEQUALITY, SEGREGATION, AND DISCRIMINATION ANOTHER, POVERTY AND UNEMPLOYMENT WHY DOES THIS MATTER? WHY DO THIS MATTER? IT IS DIFFICULT TO DETERMINE THE UNIQUE EFFECT OF A VARIABLE WHEN VARIABLES ARE STRONGLY ASSOCIATED
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MULTICOLLINEARITY: WHEN THE CORRELATION BETWEEN VARIABLES ARE VERY HIGH (.70 AND ABOVE) CONTIGUOUS NEIGHBORHOODS Close neighborhood/social ties Research have found mixed results on the effects of close ties on neighborhood crime rates Therefore, the problem is INCONSISTENT FINDINGS NEW RESEARCH IS NEEDED TO DETERMINE WHY THESE INCONSITENT FINDINGS EXIST STATIC VERSUS DYNAMIC ANALYSIS COMMUNITIES ARE NOT STATIC—THEY CHANGE OVER TIME THEREFORE, RESEARCHER SHOULD STUDY THE DYNAMICS (the change, progress, and movement) OF NEIGHBORHOODS For example, how does gentrification (when wealth move in and the poor move out) affect crime? Therefore, more longitudinal studies (researching a
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AREAS WITH POVERTY UNEMPLOYMENT AND RESIDENTIAL TURNOVER...

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