Given these complexities instructors need to examine how they address issues of

Given these complexities instructors need to examine

This preview shows page 40 - 42 out of 113 pages.

multiplicity of ethnicities, world views, lifestyles, and learning styles. Given these complexities, instructors need to examine how they address issues of diversity and to develop strategies that will increases their effectiveness (Robins, Lindsey & Terrell, 2002). In order for a school to increase its cultural proficiency it is important to analyze pedagogy. Educators can guide students in reflecting upon prior knowledge by revisiting previous learning experiences and to expound upon them. Learning prescriptives tailored to student learning needs can ―adjust the culture of education to fit the learner‖ (McLaren, 2000, p.11). Students who are unable to find personal referents may find themselves in a position of becoming socially and intellectually inert (McLaren). The literature reviewed has summarized six le arning principles from Freire‘s (1970) work that have provided teachers with pivotal points of reference in pedagogical practice: 1. The process of being shaped and made by human deeds in accordance with ideological representation of reality. 2. The world must be approached as an object to be understood and known by the learners themselves. Moreover, their acts of knowing are to be stimulated as grounded in their own being, experiences, needs, circumstances and destinies.
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29 3. The historical and cultural world must be approached as a created, transformable reality. Learners must learn how to actively make connections between their own lived conditions and being, and the making of reality that has occurred to date. 4. They must consider the possibility for ―new makings‖ of reality, the new possibilities for being that emerge from new makings, and become committed to shaping a new enabling and regenerative history. New makings are collective, shared social enterprise in which the voices of all participants must be heard. 5. In the literacy phase, learners come to see the importance of print for this shared project. By achieving print competence within the process of bringing their experiences and meanings to bear on the world in active construction (of lived relations and practice), learners will actually experience their own potency in the very act of understanding what it means to be a human subject. In the post literacy phase, the basis for action is print assisted exploration of generative themes. Addressing the themes of Western culture as conceived by Hirsch and reified in prevailing curricula and pedagogue and seeking to transcend this concept in the kinds of way elaborated in later chapters, involves exactly the kind of praxis Frere intends. 6. Learners must come to understand how the myths of dominant discourse are, precisely, myths which oppress and marginalize them but which can be transcended through transformative action. (p.11) This is supported by Dewey (1974), in his call for change in classroom practices.
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