Late 1100s kyoto was japans premier city at that time

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- Late 1100’s, Kyoto was Japan’s premier city at that time. City experienced a series of horrific disasters; fire, tornado, and epidemic disease. At the end of the 1100’s the people of Kyoto and the surrounding areas had their world fall apart. A monk comes back from China (name was Eisai) in 1191 and brought a version of Buddhism with him, and tea seeds. Strong assumption that tea and Buddhist practice go well together, and started planting tea and got other temples to plant and grow tea. He also wrote about tea. Introduced political leaders to tea. Can now start to trace increasing consumption of tea in Japan.- Mongols were in expansionist phase and hoped to expand offshore into what is now southern Japan. Second invasion was close to succeeding but a typhoon disrupted their abilityto make war.- Suki- Toward tea ceremony- 1281 Mongol invasion, thwarted.Expansion of Russian Empire, 1400’s – 1700’s- Tea is a central part of Russian culture- Expanded from Moscow city state headquarters into a vast empire- 1600’s Russian traders start to be able to have direct contact with Chinese merchants and open up trade relationships and trade routes- Towards end of 1660’s we start to see development of a small, stable market for tea. Startingto become a routine part of peoples lives- 18th century, 1700’s, is when tea becomes most common- Trade from tea centers in southern China up to market places further to the north. Russian traders would travel all the way to Beijing and negotiate; they’re dealing with merchants and not handling the tea themselves, only transporting it. Chinese merchants would arrange transportation of tea by caravan or another form of transportation.- SAMOVAR of the 18th century: most historians think it’s a Russian invention, but there are other groups who say it was not the Russians. Pipe in the middle for coal or charcoal, something to make heat, and then fill the outside around the pipe with water. Water is heated, and a concentrated tea is made in the pot on top.- Caravan decline, late 19th century.- Once canal opens, there is a cheaper way to get goods more securely to Moscow- Building of the trans-Siberian railroadThird overland route takes tea into the Islamic world:· Early references· Al-Biruni (943-1048), Book on the Pharmacopoeia of Medicine. Listed a range of types of tea he knew were out there, why tea was beneficial, the effect of different kinds of tea on the body· Tea was slow to be adopted· European role in transferIn the late 1500’s, the Chinese loosen up trade regulations, allow more merchants to sell tea, we see an increasing supply of tea going down the silk road and making its way into the Islamic world via this route.At the same time, there is a tea/coffee debate in the 13/14/1500’s. Buddhist monks use tea for 4
wakeful focus. Coffee is becoming available in the Islamic world. Coffee and tea both have wakeful focusing qualities - which monks particularly sought after.

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