Photo Credit: Getty Images Doug Menuez (- cache.net/xc/SO000531.jpg? v=1&c=IWSAsset&k=2&d=EDF6F2F4F969CEBDB62146EFFEB6FBBC34C14AC048 1B67D45168F001BDD89321) Epidemic Typhus (Rickettsia prowazekii) (Slide 18)
Quyen Vu Basic info about bacteria and its animal reservoir in North America First described in Italy in 1083: It's been around for a long time! And has been a significant contributor to mortality throughout history In 1812: more French soldiers under Napolean died because of typhus infection than were killed by Russian forces WWI: millions of deaths in Russia, Poland, and Romania. o Delousing stations set up for control effort o Fatality 10-40% of those infected. o 1918-1922: 20-30 million cases total WWII: spread along w/ armies (North Africa, Egypt, Iran) o Particularly devastating in Nazi concentration camps o Vaccine developed during this time o DDT spraying (will elaborate on this more later in the presentation) Featured in popular literature, often to highlight poor living conditions (orphanages, jails, etc.) Examples given on slide Sources: Weindling, P. (see references) Photo Credit: WWII US Medical Research Centre - dept.com/testimonies/george_mcl.php Epidemic Typhus (Rickettsia prowazekii) (Slide 19) The different names for this disease speak to the sorts of environmental and living conditions associated with this disease. As previously mentioned, this is one of the 3 diseases spread by body lice (ONLY body lice and not head or pubic lice!!)
Quyen Vu 1. Transmission occurs when an uninfected louse feeds on an infected human 2. R. prowazekii bacteria develops inside the louse's gut (the body louse is a biologic vector 3. R. prowazekii excreted in louse feces 4. The infected louse then bites a new uninfected human, who scratches the bite because it's itchy. This rubs the feces into the open wound, causing the transmission event. Clinical symptoms (similar to some of the other diseases transmitted by body lice): severe headache, sustained high fever, rash, muscle pain Can be treated with antibiotics o However important to note that mortality is really high!! 10-60% without treatment o In these crisis situations, unlikely that infected people will have access to antibiotics. Humanitarian Crisis in Burundi (Slide 20) Transition from a discussion of epidemic typhus in general into a specific case. Setting the context: Burundi very unstable due to civil war 1993-2005 Began with ethnic tensions between Hutus and Tutsis (although this was an arbitrary designation left over from Belgian colonization) Supposed differences in appearance between the groups, but difficult to tell Violence began when a Hutu elected president was assassinated by Tutsi extremists Other countries also had violence between Hutus and Tutsis (Rwandan Genocide): overall very unstable time for the entire region.
Quyen Vu Refugees (in other countries) and internally-displaced persons (in Burundi) recent estimates o ~100,000 IDP's in Burundi o 352,640 in Tanzania; 4400 in Rwanda; 17,777 DRC Source: Globalsecurity.org, CIA
- Fall '19
- Head louse, Pediculosis, Body louse, lice, Louse, Quyen Vu