3 A rise in interferon would suggest what type of infection 4 Would the primary

3 a rise in interferon would suggest what type of

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3. A rise in interferon would suggest what type of infection? 4. Would the primary or secondary response be more affected by a lack of memory B cells for a particular antigen? Explain. Application questions: 1. Why can an analysis of lymph nodes provide information regarding the spread of cancer cells? 2. Explain why immune suppression is needed to prevent graft rejection.
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67 12.7 UNIT 7: THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM The digestive system breaks down food into particles simple enough to be absorbed into the blood. AT THE END OF THIS UNIT YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO YOU WILL BE ASSESSED AS COMPETENT IF YOU CAN Describe the general function of the gastrointestinal tract. List the general functions of the digestive system. Describe the movement of digestive materials in the gastrointestinal tract. List and describe the mechanisms that regulate or control the activities of the digestive system. Describe the functions of the oral cavity, pharynx and oesophagus. Describe the basic functions of the oral cavity, tongue, salivary glands, teeth and pharynx. Describe the composition and functions of saliva and explain the control of salivary secretion. Describe the mechanism of swallowing (deglutition). Describe the functions of the stomach. Describe the functions of the stomach. Describe the composition of gastric juice and name the cell types responsible for secreting its various components. Describe the function of each secretory component found in gastric juice. Discuss the phases of gastric secretion.
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68 AT THE END OF THIS UNIT YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO YOU WILL BE ASSESSED AS COMPETENT IF YOU CAN Describe gastric digestion and absorption. Describe the functions of the small intestine and accessory digestive organs. Explain the functions and regulation of intestinal secretions. Discuss the types of movements of the small intestine. Describe the functions of the pancreas, liver and gallbladder, and explain how their activities are regulated and co- ordinated. Describe the functions of the large intestine. Describe the major functions and movements of the large intestine. Describe the defaecation reflex. Describe the mechanisms of digestion and absorption. Describe the processes of protein, fat & carbohydrate digestion and absorption. Discuss the mechanisms by which water, electrolytes & vitamins are absorbed. Self-assessment questions: 1. Describe the pharyngeal phase of deglutition. 2. Describe the secretion of hydrochloric acid by the parietal cells. 3. Describe the cephalic phase of gastric control. 4. Describe the chemical digestion of proteins and carbohydrates.
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69 Application question: 1. Recently, more people have turned to surgery to help them lose weight. One form of weight control surgery involves stapling a portion of the stomach shut.
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