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Boss Tweed, Tammany Hall Ring, NYC: deal with the urban problems of America. They circumvent the democratic process. They actually got stuff done. They solved problems in the city that overwhelm the government. This is the give to legal charities and to take care of problems, even in all of their corruption. Promise of social and economic mobility: the will rise from rags to riches. If those opportunities didn’t work in one place, they could move to another and make it work. Most people don’t have access to improve their conditions. Occupational mobility is becoming limited.No one knows where to go. Recent immigrants have the hardest time getting somewhere. Immigration is one of the reasons why there are so many problems. II. Immigration:Dillingham Commission Report, 1911: 41 volumes long. A collection of statistical reports that go all the way back to 1850. They all look at the nature of cities and immigration and try to 28
explain what has been the impact of immigration on society. In 1880 a fundamental shift occurred in immigration. 1. “Old” immigrants, before 1880, Northern/Western European: they came to the United States (English, Irish, and German) the “good” immigrants. The only difference between the “old” and “new” immigrants is the timing. 2. “New” immigrants, since 1880, Southern/Eastern European: Italians, Slavs, Russians, Catholics and Jewish. They were the scum of the earth. These were the “Bad” immigrants. All ofthe problems of urban industrial society is blamed on them. **Anti-immigrant sentiment: the answer to the problem is to stop immigration. This leads to a bunch of restriction acts. Immigration restriction acts 1921, 1924, 1927National quota system: limits the number of immigrants that can come into the country from a specific place. Superiority of the United States compared to other countries. IMMIGRATION 1871-1920“Old” “New”North/West Europe South/East Europe[English, Irish, [Italy, Greece,German, French Aust-Hung.Empire Scandinavian…] Russia, Slavs...]“GOOD” “BAD”“Old” “New”1871-80 1.6m 181,0001881-90 2.7m 926,0001891-1900 1.1m 1.8m1901-10 1m 5.8m1911-20 540,000 2.9mCauses of Immigration?--charges and realities: people escaping to religious and political freedom. They all wanted to come to the “land of opportunity”Immigrants and urban America: people are drawn by the prospects of opportunity. They end up in the urban industrial centers of the north east. They take on any jobs that are offered and those are usually the least paying and the worst jobs. Reactions to “New” ImmigrantsBusiness: corporations love these new immigrants because they can have cheap labor. 29
Labor Unions: the hate this because it poses a direct threat to their status. They fear the flood of immigration. This leads to parties and groups that oppose it and fight against it.