Interprets numerous digital simulations to eliminate

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interprets numerous digital simulations to eliminate obsolete advisories, thus increasing theproficiency of the system. Hence why, TCAS II, according to U.S. aviation authorities, ismandated to be installed into commercial and regional aircraft that are designed with a minimumof 30 seats or a maximum takeoff weight that is larger than 30,000 pounds (FAA, 2011).Safety Limitations and ConcernsEven though TCAS, since its first inception, received major updates and versions toincrease operability and reduce the risk of system failure and MACs, such versions still havecertain safety concerns and limitations, as no product can be free of hazards (Vincoli, 2014).Therefore, one safety concern would be related to human error, a major cause for most aviationaccidents. This is because TCAS is a complicated system, and without the requirement ofsufficient training, occurrences of inadequate knowledge may lead to erroneous interpretations ofthe RAs and an accident. Additionally, during emergencies, since TCAS has experienced issuesconcerning the activation of excessive warnings and alerts, the result could be pilot overload anddegraded situational awareness which is calamitous for flight operations (Tang et al., 2015).Another concern would be the urgency of TCAS since the system does not enforceactions for collision avoidance, rather, the presented information revolves around recommendedmaneuvers, which allows pilots the opportunity to mistakenly override the offered RAs, through
TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM10decision-making or other advisories sent by ATC controllers, causing miscommunication andmachine-human interface issues (Murugan & Oblah, 2010). This depicts the Überlingen accidentin 2002, where a DHL-operated Boeing 757-200 and a Bashkirian Airlines-operated TupolevTu154M collided. Although both aircraft were equipped with TCAS and sent advisories to theflight crews, the Bashkirian pilots instead followed ATC instructions to descend even after theTCAS advised a climb. And with the DHL pilots following the RAs of TCAS, this conflict ofinstruction adherence led to the collision of both aircraft, causing 71 deaths (Bennett, 2004).Other limitations to TCAS also encompass the fact that for it to be effective other aircraftwithin the same airspace should be equipped with TCAS transponders and antennas, otherwisetransmitting interrogations between aircraft are hindered. Lastly, according to Murugan & Oblah(2010), one other drawback is the system’s detection capacity, specifically, as the TCAS II canonly manage advisories for three aircraft at a time, causing difficulty at other altitudes.Risk MitigationDespite the aforementioned concerns and limitations of TCAS, there are risk mitigationstrategies that can be employed to reduce the hazards associated with the system.System TrainingFirst of all, one mitigation strategy to reduce human error and issues regarding thehuman-machine interface is to employ the training requirements embedded in the FAA AdvisoryCircular (AC) 120-55C. This is because specified in this document, flight crews operating

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Term
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Traffic Collision Avoidance System

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