Sleazy Northerners who had come to South at end of war seeking personal power and profit2.Actually most = Union soldiers and Northern businessmen who wanted to help modernize the “New South”7.Radical regimes = very helpful, established badly needed reforms1.Established adequate public schools2.Tax systems were streamlined (made more efficient)3.Public works launched and property rights given to women4.=> so helpful even kept by all-white “Redeemer” gov. that returned to power8.Corruption was rampant in both South and North1.“radical” governments used inexperienced blacks as pawns2.“Legislative supplies” – ham, perfume, clothes, champagne, etc.3.=> carpetbaggers saved $100,000 from salary of $8,00015. The Ku Klux Klan1.Hated success and ability of black legislatures as much as corruption2.Also called “Invisible Empire of the South”1.Tried to scare blacks – “1stwater taste since Battle of Shiloh”2.Southern whites resorted to savage measures against “radical” rule3.Also used force = floggings, mutilation, murder3.=> Congress passed harsh Force Acts1.Helped stop further attacks on whites2.But KKK’s work had already intimidated much resistance4.White resistance undermined many attempts to empower blacks politically1.Included intimidation, fraud, and trickery2.Goal of white supremacy “justified” these dishonorable acts and schemes16. Johnson Walks the Impeachment plank1.Tenure of Office Act1.Required president secure the consent of the Senate before remove his appointees once they had been approved
2.Purpose – ensure secretary of war (Edwin M. Stanton) remain in office1.Originally from Lincoln administration2.Outwardly loyal to Johnson = secretly spy and informer for radicals2.Johnson dismiss Stanton => try to impeach Johnson = charged for violating the Tenure of Office Act and acts of disgrace, ridicule, hatred, contempt, etc.17. A Not-Guilty Verdict for Johnson1.The radical led Senate now sat to try Johnson on dubious impeachment charges2.Johnson’s attorneys said Johnson only fired Stanton to test the Tenure of Office Act before the Supreme Court3.Benjamin Butler and Thaddeus Stevens (House prosecutors) = hard time with the case4.Johnson not guilty by one vote1.7 independent-minded Republican senators courageously put country above party2.Other factors influenced decision1.Fears of creating a destabilizing precedent2.Principled opposition to abusing constitutional checks and balances3.Political succession = problem = Senate president Benjamin Wade1.Radical – high tariff, soft money, pro-labor2.Distrusted by moderate Republicans4.Johnson promise to stop blocking Republican policy if allow return to office 5.Nation narrowly avoided dangerous precedent/custom1.=> would have gravely weakened Executive branch of gov.