Sleazy northerners who had come to south at end of

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Sleazy Northerners who had come to South at end of war seeking personal power and profit 2. Actually most = Union soldiers and Northern businessmen who wanted to help modernize the “New South” 7. Radical regimes = very helpful, established badly needed reforms 1. Established adequate public schools 2. Tax systems were streamlined (made more efficient) 3. Public works launched and property rights given to women 4. => so helpful even kept by all-white “Redeemer” gov. that returned to power 8. Corruption was rampant in both South and North 1. “radical” governments used inexperienced blacks as pawns 2. “Legislative supplies” – ham, perfume, clothes, champagne, etc. 3. => carpetbaggers saved $100,000 from salary of $8,000 15. The Ku Klux Klan 1. Hated success and ability of black legislatures as much as corruption 2. Also called “Invisible Empire of the South” 1. Tried to scare blacks – “1 st water taste since Battle of Shiloh” 2. Southern whites resorted to savage measures against “radical” rule 3. Also used force = floggings, mutilation, murder 3. => Congress passed harsh Force Acts 1. Helped stop further attacks on whites 2. But KKK’s work had already intimidated much resistance 4. White resistance undermined many attempts to empower blacks politically 1. Included intimidation, fraud, and trickery 2. Goal of white supremacy “justified” these dishonorable acts and schemes 16. Johnson Walks the Impeachment plank 1. Tenure of Office Act 1. Required president secure the consent of the Senate before remove his appointees once they had been approved
2. Purpose – ensure secretary of war (Edwin M. Stanton) remain in office 1. Originally from Lincoln administration 2. Outwardly loyal to Johnson = secretly spy and informer for radicals 2. Johnson dismiss Stanton => try to impeach Johnson = charged for violating the Tenure of Office Act and acts of disgrace, ridicule, hatred, contempt, etc. 17. A Not-Guilty Verdict for Johnson 1. The radical led Senate now sat to try Johnson on dubious impeachment charges 2. Johnson’s attorneys said Johnson only fired Stanton to test the Tenure of Office Act before the Supreme Court 3. Benjamin Butler and Thaddeus Stevens (House prosecutors) = hard time with the case 4. Johnson not guilty by one vote 1. 7 independent-minded Republican senators courageously put country above party 2. Other factors influenced decision 1. Fears of creating a destabilizing precedent 2. Principled opposition to abusing constitutional checks and balances 3. Political succession = problem = Senate president Benjamin Wade 1. Radical – high tariff, soft money, pro-labor 2. Distrusted by moderate Republicans 4. Johnson promise to stop blocking Republican policy if allow return to office 5. Nation narrowly avoided dangerous precedent/custom 1. => would have gravely weakened Executive branch of gov.

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