1. Simple – One flower with one ovary 2. Aggregate – One flower with many ovaries 3. Multiple – An inflorescence that became a fruit (infructescence)
Flower, Pollen, Ovule, Fruit, Seed BOTAFUN Kinds of Simple fruits 1. Fleshy 2. Dry 2.1. Dehiscent 2.2. Indehiscent FLESHY Berry (Grape) Whole fruit is fleshy throughout Pome (Apple) Papery pericarp, the fleshy part develops from the accessory parts such as the perianth. An Accessory fruit Drupe (Mango) One seeded fruit with a hard covering. 3 layers of pericarp are distinct. Pepo (Watermelon) Hard and thick exocarp Hesperidium (Orange) Leathery exocarp covering the juice sacs DRY DEHISCENT – Splits open at maturity Legume 1 carpel that splits along 2 seams Capsule 2 or more carpels that splits along a variety of ways Silique 2 carpels that separates Follicle 1 carpel splits along 1 seam DRY INDEHISCENT – Does not split open at maturity Achene Seed can be separated from the ovary wall Grain Like achene, except that the seed is fused with the pericarp/seed coat Samara Winged achene Utricle Like the achene, but the pericarp is loose and fragile Nut Very hard pericarp that surrounds a single seed Seed Dispersal Diaspore – Dispersal unit (seeds/fruits) Atelochory – Absence of specialized dispersal unit Four types of seed dispersal 1. Autochory Explosive fruits Geocarpic – Carpel grows inside the earth (Peanuts) 2. Anemochory Some fruits have wings Plumes – Resembles a feather 3. Hydrochory Some fruits have air spaces inside that enable them to float
Flower, Pollen, Ovule, Fruit, Seed BOTAFUN 4. Zoochory Seed Seed Structure The embryo and its food supply are enclosed by a hard, protective seed coat A common eudicot seed, the embryo consists of the hypocotyl, radicle, and thick cotyledons Hypocotyl – Below cotyledon attachment point and above the radicle Epicotyl – Embryonic axis above the cotyledon attachment Radicle – The embryonic root *Does not have distinct endosperm because the cotyledons absorbed it. The embryo will get nourishment from the cotyledon A monocot seed has a single cotyledon The embryo of a monocot has a single cotyledon, coleoptile (sheath that protects the shoot) and coleorhiza (sheath that protects the root). Has a distinct endosperm. How are seedless fruits formed? 1. Pollination failure 2. Chromosomal imbalance 3. Application of auxin before pollen matures Asexual reproduction 1. Fragmentation – Separation of a parent plant into parts 2. Apomixis – Asexual reproduction of seeds A diploid cell in the ovule develops into an embryo. 3. Vegetative propagation Stem, leaf, root, cuttings, budding, grafting, marcotting Cutting – Portion of the root, shoot, branch, stem, leaf or bud Grafting – Involves joining the stock (mother plant) with the scion (desired variety) There must be a union of cambium layers Asexual Reproduction in Agriculture Main disadvantage? – No variation Nearly all crop plants have very little genetic variation Grown in monocultures
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- Fall '19
- Pollination, Plant morphology, Flowering plant, Pollen