Tend to occupy larger territories that overlap with

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tend to occupy larger territories that overlap with the territories of numerous females (e.g., most prosimians, orangutans) Monogamy—pair bonding over an extended period of time; social and reproductive monogamy are two different things; social monogamy is more common than true reproductive monogamy (e.g., gibbons, titis) Polygyny—Consists of at least one male and multiple females; comes in 3 forms-- 1-male “harem”; multi-male, age-graded group; fission-fusion (e.g., chimps, bonobos)
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Anth 200g Midterm 1 Key Fall 2010 Polyandry—one female lives in a reproductive or social unit with multiple males (e.g., marmosets, tamarins)
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Anth 200g Midterm 1 Key Fall 2010 Question #3: What is Intelligent Design? How does it differ from other creationist views, and why is it not science? (up to 4 points) -Intelligent Design (ID) is a recent version of creationism; associated with Michael Behe. -argues that evolution by natural selection cannot fully explain the diversity of form and function in the natural world. -ID argues for the presence of ‘irreducible complexity’ - some features/characteristics in living creatures are too complex to have evolved through selection for incremental genetic changes. Therefore, “something” (which is typically interpreted to be God) must have guided the process. (up to 3 points; need to include at least one or two of the following concepts) -ID proponents do not hold to a literal interpretation of Biblical scripture. -ID proponents avoid calling the intelligent designer “God” publically for legal reasons, although in private they do. -Typically concede that the earth (and the universe as a whole) is very old, rather than subscribing to a ‘young earth’ paradigm of a few thousand years. -Typically concede that the fossil evidence confirms that organisms have evolved over time, that new organisms have appeared, and others have gone extinct. -Typically concede that ‘unguided’ natural selection occurs and that it can even lead to the formation of new species, but not to the formation of entirely new types of organisms (up to 3 points; need to include at least two of the following concepts) -ID is not science because ultimately it is based on invoking supernatural forces to explain aspects of the natural world. -offers only criticisms that cannot be addressed through further research. -offers no testable hypotheses about when or how God or other forces may have intervened to influence biological changes in populations over time.
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Anth 200g Midterm 1 Key Fall 2010 -Not appropriate in science to declare some topics or concepts “too complex to understand” and to then conclude that supernatural forces are or were at work. Historically, supernatural explanations for natural phenomenon that were once viewed as ‘too complex to understand’ (lightning, fossils, earthquakes, the movements of the moon and stars, etc.) have never held up. -Shown in Dover court trial to be faith-based rather than science-based. Question #4. Describe two examples of chimpanzee tool use, either in wild or captive chimpanzees, from one of the Annual Editions readings or from Through A Window . Explain how Goodall’s observations of tool use influenced the previous definitions of being “human.” (3 pts per well-explained example of tool use; 4 pts for explaining influence of Goodall’s observation on definitions of being human = 10 pts total) Tool use examples could include: o termite fishing o nut cracking o Kohler problem-solving chimps o Leaf sponging o
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