O private identity o culture is best way to

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o Private identity o Culture is best way to understand culture -> believe in propaganda o Physical imagery of burning books o Hides truths Do you know other famous examples of book burnings in the 20 th or 21 st century? o Bosnian War o Right after 9/11, in the States, threatening to burn Koran #5 Kristallnacht Pogrom January 14 Austria, Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia Night of Broken Glass, Anti-Jewish Pogroms: Nov 9-10, 1938 First state organized riot in Germany and in Austria (Anschluss – Mar 12, 1938)
Pogrom: A Russian word meaning “to wreak havoc, to demolish violently” o First pogrom anti-Jewish rioting in 1821 Jewish businesses plundered and destroyed Synagogue burned Pretext for the Night of Terror Jews held responsible for the death of a German diplomat in Paris Ernst vom Rath Shot by Herschel Grynszpan, a 17-year-old Polish Jew on Nov 7, 1938 “Spontaneous outrage” of the Germans Jewish houses and businesses plundered and destroyed Jews attacked in their homes Jews forced to perform public acts of humiliation Synagogues Destroyed Map Kristallnacht Pogrom – Austria Particularly brutal Jewish businesses were ransacked and looted Synagogues and prayer houses in Vienna burned throughout the night o Watched indifferently Jewish cemeteries also destroyed Aftermath Kristallnacht Pogrom Precise number of victims not known 91 Jews were murdered during the night of the Kristallnacht according to official figures o Should add suicide numbers, deaths in concentration camps o Police records document high number of rapes and suicides in the aftermath 30,000 Jewish men were incarcerated in Buchenwald, Dachau and Sachsenhausen Hundreds died in the camps Over the next 3 months, most of the men released on the condition that they begin the process of emigration from Germany o Germans wanted Jewish people to leave the country Ex. Shanghai; still under Japan control, Japan was Germany’s ally?! Fine of one billion Reichsmark (approximately 400 million US dollars at 1938 rates) imposed on the German Jewish community All insurance payouts to Jewish homes and businesses confiscated by the German Reichs Government Social Isolation Jews removed from public life Jewish children still attending German schools were expelled Jews could not hold a driver’s license or own a car Jews not allowed to use public transport
Jews prohibited from entering “German” cinemas, theatres or concert halls Further Decrees Decree on the Exclusion of Jews from German Economic Life (Nov 12, 1938) Jews forced to surrender all precious metals and stones in Jewish Ownership (Feb 21, 1939) o Only wedding ring and a watch Kristallnacht Pogrom: turning point in the Nazi persecution of the Jews Culmination in the Nazi attempt to annihilate European Jewry Rest of the civilian population in Germany and Austria passive to the violence Survival Testimony, Video Clips Rabbi Gerd Jacob (Zwienicki) Wiener Susan (Strauss) Taube Reflect

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