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How did Survivors’ relationships with their families and communities change as a result of attending residential schools? How have the policies that traumatized students affected later generations?Share your findings as a class, and discuss what you have learned from your research. The Mohawk Institute becomes Canada’s first residential school in Brantford, Ontario. At first, the school only admits boys. In 1834, girls are admitted.The Bagot Commission proposes that separating Indigenous children from their parents is the best way to achieve assimilation. It also recommends that the Mohawk Institute be considered a model for other industrial schools. The Gradual CivilizationAct requires male ‘Indians’ and Métis over the age of 21 to read, write and speak either English or French, and to choose a government-approved surname. The Act awards 50 acres of land to any “sufficiently advanced” Indigenous male, and in return removes any tribal affiliation or treaty rights.Under the Constitution Act(British North America Act), ‘Indians’ and land reserved for ‘Indians’ are made a federal responsibility, as is education.Amendments to the Indian Actof 1876 provide for the creation of Indian residential schools, funded and operated by the Government of Canada and Roman Catholic, Anglican, Methodist, Presbyterian and United churches. The Canadian government also bans traditional Indigenous ceremonies.Sir John A. Macdonald authorizes the creation of residential schools in the West based on the recommendations of the 1879 Davin Report.45 residential schools are in operation across Canada. Each school is provided with an allowance per student, which leads to overcrowding and an increase in diseases within the institutions.National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation: nctr.ca/map.phpTruth and Reconciliation Commission Reports: nctr.ca/reports.phpTruth and Reconciliation Commission: thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/truth-and-reconciliation-commissionResidential Schools:thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/residential-schoolsIndian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement: thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/indian-residential-schools-settlement-agreementIntergenerational Survivors: people who have been affected by the cross-generational dysfunction created by the experience of attending residential school, including people who have been abused by Survivors or victims of Survivors and, more generally, people who live in dysfunctional communities that are rooted in the fracturing of family and community caused by the generations of children who were separated from their families. In the early 1990s, an estimated 287,350 Intergenerational Survivors were living across Canada, on- and off-reserve.
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First Nations, residential schools, Indian Residential Schools