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•There is an explicit “secure” version of DNP3, but there also remain many insecure implementations of DNP3 as well. •DNP3 has placed great emphasis on the reliable delivery of messages. •That emphasis, while normally highly desirable, has a specific weakness from a security perspective. •In the case of DNP3, participants allow for unsolicited (unrequested) responses, which could trigger an undesired response. •The missing security element here is the ability to establish trust in the system’s state and thus the ability to trust the veracity (accuracy) of the information being presented. 6) ICCP (Inter-Control Center Communications Protocol) •ICCP is a common control protocol in utilities across North America that is frequently used to communicate between utilities. •Given that it must traverse the boundaries between different networks, it holds an extra level of exposure and risk that could expose a utility to cyber attack. •Unlike other control protocols, ICCP was designed from inception to work across a WAN. •Despite this role, initial versions of ICCP had several significant gaps in the area of security. •One key vulnerability is that the system did not require authentication for communication. •Second, encryption across the protocol was not enabled as a default condition, thus exposing connections to man-in-the-middle (MITM) and replay attacks. 7) OPC (OLE for Process Control) •OPC is based on the Microsoft interoperability methodology Object Linking and Embedding (OLE).
Nithin Kurup U G INTERNET OF THINGS TECHNOLOGY Page 49 •This is an example where an IT standard used within the IT domain and personal computers has been leveraged for use as a control protocol across an industrial network. •Many of the Windows devices in the operational space are old, not fully patched, and at risk due to a plethora of well-known vulnerabilities. •The dependence on OPC may reinforce (strengthen)that dependence. While newer versions of OPC have enhanced security capabilities, they have also opened up new communications modes, which have both positive and negative security potential. •Of particular concern with OPC is the dependence on the Remote Procedure Call (RPC) protocol, which creates two classes of exposure. •The first requires you to clearly understand the many vulnerabilities associated with RPC, and the second requires you to identify the level of risk these vulnerabilities bring to a specific network. 8) International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Protocols •The IEC 61850 standard was created to allow vendor-agnostic engineering of power utility systems, which would, in turn, allow interoperability between vendors and standardized communication protocols. •Three message types were initially defined: MMS (Manufacturing Message Specification), GOOSE (Generic Object Oriented Substation Event), and SV (Sampled Values).