kill mosquitoes as New Yorkers were growing fearful about a potentially dangerous and unknown virus in their midst. ○All one had to do was walk outside and be bitten by a mosquito to become sick. ○Now present in all 50 states. Goes away in cold weather, returns annually. ●Sexually Transmitted Diseases○One of the greatest threats worldwide comes from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). ○The yet incurable AIDS virus was introduced into human populations in epidemic proportions. Others such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, AIDS, syphilis, and hepatitis B account for nearly 90 percent of cases reported for the country’s leading infectious diseases. ○What caused the prevalence of STDs to soar around the globe? ■(1) The birth control pill that greatly reduced fears of unwanted pregnancy. ■(2) An ideology of sexual liberation and permissiveness among young urban adults throughout the world. ■(3) A new pattern of employment in developing nations, in which young males migrate to cities for jobs and return to their villages on weekends to spend time with their spouses and girlfriends, thereby spreading STDs acquired in urban areas to the countryside. ■(4) Most importantly, the availability of multiple sexual partners on an unprecedented scale. ○Homosexual men in Europe and North America and young heterosexuals in developing countries, took the greatest advantage of the new sexual climate. ○Air travel and mass transit systems allowed people from all over the world to go to cities of their choice, and attitudes of sexual permissiveness all combined to promote the spread of STDs. ○The number of sex partners an individual has is the most important risk factor in exposure to infection. ●Bioterrorism○Takes place when people knowingly prepare biological agents of gases and use them to deliberately induce illness and death among other people. ○Sociology has a vital role to play in assessing bioterrorism with its themes of intentional diseases, fear, security, surveillance, combat, and other issues. `
○Overtbioterrorism is when the perpetrator announces responsibility for the event or is revealed by the attack. ○Covert bioterrorism are characterized by the unannounced or unrecognized release of agents, in which the presence of sick people may be the first sign of attack. ○One of the most terrifying covert attacks in the United States was the anthrax sent through the U.S. mail in September through November, 2001. Someone had mailed anthrax spores in letters from post offices in New Jersey to certain media outlets and congressional offices. ■Measures were taken to protect postal facilities, and a massive investigation was launched to find the person or persons responsible. Chapter 2 ● Epidemiological Measures ○ A case, in epidemiological terms, refers to an episode of a disorder, illness, or injury involving a person. ○ The primary focus of the epidemiologist is not on the individual, but on the health problems of social aggregates or large groups of people. ● Incidence and Prevalence ○
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