The American and French Revolutions inspired each of these revolutions. Most constitutions adopted followed the United Sates as a model In spite of very liberal constitutions with guarantees of human rights and elected legislatures and presidents, most came under control of strong men in the 19 th century known as caudillos that ruled with cooperation of the local
creole elites and in many cases with a conservative catholic clerical establishment The new countries of Latin America Venezuela, Colombia, Argentina, Ecuador, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Brazil Congress of Vienna This was an assembly in 1814– 15 that reorganized Europe after the Napoleonic Wars . Nationalism in North America Up until 1865, the US was broken up into regional identities. But after the Civil War, nationalism was strong enough to break up the regional identities. Large gap between the French Québec and the English in the other areas. Chapter 6 Second Industrial Revolution-when it occurred and how it differed from the First 1860-1920 Corporations (joint-stock companies) replaced business partnerships Transportation MacAdam technique for sealing roads, canal and bridge building, Steamships increased speed and reduced cost of transport, railroads, Electronic Communication – Telegraph (Victorian Internet) Samuel Morse. Telephone, Alexander Bell 1876 and the radio in 1890s Establishment of world trade The impact of the Industrial Revolution on the society A New industrial working class lived and labored under harsh conditions (long hours, child labor, dangerous working conditions and unhealthy living conditions) The new social classes of industrial societies A huge middle class Proletarians – Who work but do not own means of production Bourgeois – Who invest and live off the surplus by the former autocracy that has lands as a mean of production Bourgeois culture The culture established the dominant values and norms of the new industrial societies. It emphasized hard work, thrift, and constant self-improvement. Excessive drinking, gambling, and idling were frowned upon Characteristics of the bourgeois family Bourgeois Family o Husband – Left home and went to work. o Wife – Stayed at home primarily concerned with cleaning and maintaining the house and carrying fort he children Origins of socialism
The communist manifesto. 1864, they formed the International Workingmen’s Association. This was not effective. 1889 Socialist international was formed and this led to many revolutions across the world. Utopian socialists, principles of Marxism Utopian Socialists o French Henri de Saint Simon (1760-1825) Who wanted the state and private industry to cooperate in building an industrial society that would protect the industrial workers, take care of the needy and insure property for all. o Charles Fourier (1772-1837) Eliminate individualism and competition, and to create a society based on voluntary cooperatives units.
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