doms. While Bill C-31 (1985) addressed many of these problems, it did not reduce discrimination against women. Under the new Act, anomalies can develop where the children of a status Indian woman can pass on status to their children only if they marry registered Indians, whereas the grandchildren of a status male will have full status, despite the fact that one of their parents does not have status. 343 While a person may be a Status Indian, it is up to a Band whether she or he is considered a Band member. Entitlements reinstated under Bill C-31 do not necessarily translate into Band membership. This can be problematic for women and their families who have had their Status reinstated through Bill C-31. Women may not have many connections to a Band, or there may be a shortage of resources for such things as housing, education programs or health care on the reserve, so that Bands can be reluctant to accept new members. 344 Poverty has clear outcomes on health because, in part, it determines what kinds of foods house- holds have available to them and what they can afford to purchase. Thus, families at lower in- comes are subject to the stress of food insecurity from a compromised diet that results when food is no longer available. In 1998-1999, indigenous peoples living off reserve were almost three times more likely to be living in households experiencing food insecurity than was the case for all Canadians (27 per cent to 10 percent). This condition is strongly related to low incomes as well as single parent status, both of which are more likely to occur in aboriginal households. In 2012, the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Mr. Olivier De Schutter, undertook a country visit to Canada. In his report 345 he stated he was disconcerted by the deep and severe food in- security faced by aboriginal peoples living both on- and off-reserve in remote and urban areas. In the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, where the greatest concentration of Inuit 342 Forsaken: the Report of the Missing Women Commission of Inquiry (2012) Vol. 111, p. 41. 343 Report of the Aboriginal Justice Inquiry of Manitoba (1999). 344 Kathy Bent, Joanne Havelock, Margaret Haworth-Brockman, “Entitlements and health services for First Nations and Métis women in Manitoba and Saskatchewan”, The Prairie Women’s Health Centre of Excellence, August 2007, http:// . 345 A/HRC/22/50/Add.1.
122 ξ Chapter 5 State of the World’s Indigenous Peoples populations resides, food insecurity in 2007-2008 was 11.6 per cent, 12.4 per cent and 32.6 per cent respectively. Health Canada, 346 The Special Rapporteur also stated that First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey (RHS 2008-2010) indicates that 17.8 per cent of First Nations adults (ages 25-39) and 16.1 per cent of First Nations adults (ages 40-54) reported being hungry, but did not eat due to lack of money for food in 2007-2008. 347 Though the situation of food insecurity is monitored through surveys such as the Canadian Community Health Survey, the Inuit Health Sur-
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 200 pages?