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He wrote over 400 sermons and political essays.57He rejected the get happy philosophy of “feel good religion”. He believed in self-help and self-disciplineHe influenced the young W. E. B. DuBois. Two of his protégés John E. Bruce andWilliam H. Ferris became senior officials in the Garvey Movement of the 1920’sHe passed in September 1898Who was Mary Church Terrell?a writer, lecturer, educatorborn into one of the wealthier families in Memphis, Tennesseegraduate of Oberlin college in 1884… one of the African American women tocomplete college educationmarried Robert Terrell, then resigned her teaching post to spend the rest of her lifeas a lecturer, women’s rights activist, and leader of the African AmericanWomen’s Club movement56Edward W. Blyden, Christanity, Islam and The Negro Race[Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press, 1991] pp. i-xv57Wilson, Jeremiah Moses, edited, Destiny and Race: Selected Writings, 1840-1898, Alexander Crumell[Massachusetts: The University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, 1992]48
one of the first women presidents of the Bethel Literary and HistoricalAssociation.58Who was Henry McNeal Turner?one of the first Bishops in the African (AME) Episcopal Churchan army chaplain, political organizer, magazine editor, college chancellor, andpreacherintroduced bills for:ohigher education for African Americansocreation of the African American militia to protect African Americansfrom KKK ogive women the right to voteencouraged African Americans to return to Africatheologiandeclared: “God is a Negro”was an agitator and a prophet who addressed the hopes and frustrations ofAfrican Americans’ struggling in the 19thcentury.59Who was George Washington Williams?Born in Bedford Springs, Pennsylvania in 1849, he ran away at the age of 14 in 1864 andjoined the Union army. After the civil war he went to Mexico and fought withRepublican forces that overthrew Maximillian. Returning to the United States he enlistedin the Tenth Calvary, one of the four all Negro units of the regular United States Army,from which he received a medical discharge from, in 1868. He attended the NewtonTheological Institution and by the age of 25 was installed as a pastor of the TwelfthBaptist Church in Boston. The following year he went to Washington to edit TheCommonerwhose purpose was to replace The National Erapublished by FrederickDouglas which had gone bankrupt. He soon settled in Cincinnati where he pursued various careers as pastor; columnist forThe Cincinnati Commercial. He became the first African American member of the statelegislature of Ohio since Reconstruction. In 1882, he wrote a two-volume history titled AHistory of the Negro Race in America from 1619 to 1880; Negroes as Slaves, as Soldiersand as Citizenspublished by Harper and Brothers.