He wrote over 400 sermons and political essays 57 He rejected the get happy

He wrote over 400 sermons and political essays 57 he

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He wrote over 400 sermons and political essays. 57 He rejected the get happy philosophy of “feel good religion”. He believed in self- help and self-discipline He influenced the young W. E. B. DuBois. Two of his protégés John E. Bruce and William H. Ferris became senior officials in the Garvey Movement of the 1920’s He passed in September 1898 Who was Mary Church Terrell? a writer, lecturer, educator born into one of the wealthier families in Memphis, Tennessee graduate of Oberlin college in 1884… one of the African American women to complete college education married Robert Terrell, then resigned her teaching post to spend the rest of her life as a lecturer, women’s rights activist, and leader of the African American Women’s Club movement 56 Edward W. Blyden, Christanity, Islam and The Negro Race [Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press, 1991] pp. i-xv 57 Wilson, Jeremiah Moses, edited, Destiny and Race: Selected Writings, 1840-1898, Alexander Crumell [Massachusetts: The University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, 1992] 48
one of the first women presidents of the Bethel Literary and Historical Association. 58 Who was Henry McNeal Turner? one of the first Bishops in the African (AME) Episcopal Church an army chaplain, political organizer, magazine editor, college chancellor, and preacher introduced bills for: o higher education for African Americans o creation of the African American militia to protect African Americans from KKK o give women the right to vote encouraged African Americans to return to Africa theologian declared: “God is a Negro” was an agitator and a prophet who addressed the hopes and frustrations of African Americans’ struggling in the 19 th century. 59 Who was George Washington Williams? Born in Bedford Springs, Pennsylvania in 1849, he ran away at the age of 14 in 1864 and joined the Union army. After the civil war he went to Mexico and fought with Republican forces that overthrew Maximillian. Returning to the United States he enlisted in the Tenth Calvary, one of the four all Negro units of the regular United States Army, from which he received a medical discharge from, in 1868. He attended the Newton Theological Institution and by the age of 25 was installed as a pastor of the Twelfth Baptist Church in Boston. The following year he went to Washington to edit The Commoner whose purpose was to replace The National Era published by Frederick Douglas which had gone bankrupt. He soon settled in Cincinnati where he pursued various careers as pastor; columnist for The Cincinnati Commercial . He became the first African American member of the state legislature of Ohio since Reconstruction. In 1882, he wrote a two-volume history titled A History of the Negro Race in America from 1619 to 1880; Negroes as Slaves, as Soldiers and as Citizens published by Harper and Brothers.

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