o Tda can link into three D structure highest degree of polymerization

O tda can link into three d structure highest degree

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o Tda can link into three-D structure (highest degree of polymerization, framework), two important minerals groups:
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Quartz- SiO2 Feldspars- contains Ca2+, Na+, K+ Revision- Silicates (increasing order of polymerization). Isolated Tda- olivine Single chains of Tda linkage- Pyroxene. Double chains of Tda linkage- Amphibole
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Sheet of Tda linkage- Mica, Clays 3-D Linage- quartz, feldspar. Other mineral groups much less complicated and less abundant. Get chlorides, sulfides, oxides Etc. Other complex ions such as sulfates (SO4)4-, carbonates (CO3)2-, Phosphates (PO4)4 - Cannot polymerize , hence much simpler (Fig 3-10) Important minerals: Calcium Carbonate- CaCO3- Calcite Calcium Sulfate- CaSO4- Gypsum Calcium Phosphate- Apatite (inside teeth and bones) Important Diagnostic Features- Identifying minerals (Table 3.4) Chemistry- Iron most important. Adds color (Red/green/brown/black) to minerals when present raises melting point (along with Mg), and leads to higher density. Bonding Type- Covalent bonded minerals are harder (difficult to break) and have lower densities. Ionic bonded minerals as above but in each case less so. Van der Waals bonds are easily broken, makes minerals soft. Physical Properties Used F- Moh’s scale. ( table 3.2 ) know if its in the softer part, or harder part Tale 1, Gypsum 2. Calcite 3, Fluorite 4, Apatite 5, Orthoclase 6, Quartz 7, Topaz 8, Corundum 9, Diamond 10 Cleavage - Break open mineral exploiting plane of weak bonding, e.g. platy cleavage, breaking Mica apart along planes with van der Waals bonding Density - Minerals with covalent bonds have lower density. Presence of iron raises the density of minerals. Crystal Form - ( Fig 3.8 ) Other less reliable properties : Color- can be very misleading, minor trace impurities changes color considerably Luster- appearance in reflected light. Fracture- forceful breaking of mineral. Breaking it willingly. Streak- color of fine powder left on unglazed porcelain sheet. (Fig 3-20) Acid test often useful. (Fig 3-16) Carbonates will fizz releasing colorless/odorless gas- carbon dioxide Sulfides release gas smelling of rotten eggs- H2S, SO2-
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Rocks Solid aggregates of minerals. Look to: Mineralogy- What minerals it contains how much of each Texture- Size and shape of mineral crystals and the way they are put together o If crystals visible to naked eye- coarse(grained), if not- fine (grained) Mineralogy and Texture tell us how rock was formed. Three Rock Families (Fig 3-22) Igneous- Formed by solidification of molten rock material (magma)- Fire-formed rocks. Sedimentary- “Settled Form Rocks” Metamorphic- “Changed Form Rocks”. From existing Igneous or Sedimentary rocks. Igneous Rocks Intrusive- Magma crystallized deep in crust. Coarse grained, inter-locking crystals.
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