Physics Index 3 (back)

Binding energybe break ionic bonds lower temperatures

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•Binding Energy(BE)- break ionic bonds @ lower temperatures •Coulomb force (satisfies 3 rd law) has an inverse square, radius goes up by 4,F=1/16 •K B T<BE:not a lot of moving add lots of E to separate ions, thermal •eminate outward for positive charges, inward for negative charges energy is small, stable, K B T>BE: a lot of moving, unstable, falls apart •electric field goes to zero as you move away from the charge •+charge PE highest near surface, −charge highest PE when potential V is low •↑velocity, ↑drag force (large fragments have a lower velocity) •more charge you move, the more work you have to do~voltage change •small fragments go farther because the drag force on them are smaller •polar:molecules do not overlap, so they have a permanent dipole moment •force between 2 charges *always b/t two things* •asymmetry of H 2 O dipole moment pointed toward more + H + atoms (− +) •bigger the charge, the bigger the force •polar nature of H 2 O allows it to dissolve charge molecules easily •external electric field separation of the – and + •↑K=↑induced electric field •strong external field ↓ temperature gives you a better alignment •tendency to align in the direction of the electric field •absence of external electric field, dipoles points in random direction •polar mol. create own electric field, induced field= random alignment

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