What liberty he thought is absolute except where it

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What: Liberty, he thought, is absolute, except where it interferes with others. Rejected utilitarianism, the idea that the goal of the state was to create the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. He was a proponent of individual rights.When: 1806-1873Where:WHY (significance): An example of changing ideologies to focus on individual rights such as liberty. This was a new idea at the time, as shown through the creation of the concept of the social contract. Fascism Who: Mussolini, HitlerWhat: A system of government marked by centralization of authority under a dictator, stringent socioeconomic controls, and suppression of the opposition through terror and censorship; radical authoritarian nationalism When: rose after WWI Where: Europe WHY (significance): after WWI states believed they needed to have strong militaries and have the ability to militarize quickly. This lead to the belief that one-party, dictatorial states was the only way to adequately prepare for armed conflict → leads to another world warPromoting radical authoritarian nationalism was an easy way to influence a population into believing they were superior to others → allows government to implement radical policies in pursuit of this perceived superiority, population goes along with it → ex: nazi partyConstitutionalismWho:What: The doctrine that the state is founded on a set of fundamental laws that rulers and citizens make together and are bound to respect. When: 19th Century Where: Europe, Japan, USWHY (significance): Another way to justify new structures of power/challenge old ones, along with nationalism. Admitted more people to the political process. Changed the way people thought about the state--it was no longer the domain of the ruler, instead monarchs and governments were subject to the rule of law.Holds rulers accountable by limiting/checking their power BureaucratizationWho:What: The process by which government increasingly operates through a body oftrained officials who follow a set of regular rules and procedures.When:7
Where: Worldwide. Old empires; new industrial states..WHY (significance): Played large role in the development of the modern state. Was a result of industrialization creating a larger and more complex government -deeper government control was possible and needed. Improved the ability to harness economy to government goals.Jose RizalWho: The greatest spokesman of Filipino nationalism in the late nineteenth century, dressed and conversed like a typical upper class Spaniard.What:Was a hybrid of Europe and Asia, a misfit wherever he wentHe spent his last years in exile, charged with conspiring with other nationalists to make the Philippines independent. When he returned to Manila and was shot by the Spaniards as a rebel, he struck out the words“Chinese half-breed” on his death warrant and wrote “pure native” instead.

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