Chapter 3 - Modes of Transportation.pdf

Divergence between production and consumption

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Divergence between production and consumption; repositioning. Theft and losses High value goods and a load unit that can opened or carried (on truck). Vulnerability between terminal and final destination. 10,000 containers are lost at sea each year (fall overboard). Illicit trade Common instrument used in the illicit trade of goods, drugs and weapons, as well as for illegal immigration. Concerns about the usage of containers for terrorism.
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Advantages and Drawbacks of Containerization Standardization Advantages Drawbacks Flexibility Costs Velocity Warehousing Security & Safety ISO standard (modes and equipment). Unique identification number and size type code. Large consumption of terminal space. Draft issues with larger containerships. Site Constraints Capital Intensiveness Stacking Theft and Losses Repositioning Illicit Trade Commodities, manufactured goods, liquids and refrigerated goods. $ Low transport costs. Economies of scale at modes and terminals. Fast transshipment operations. Low terminal turnaround times. Own warehouse; simpler and less expensive packaging. Stacking capability. Contents unknown to carriers. Reduced spoilage and losses. Container handling infrastructures and equipment are important investments. Complexity of arrangement of containers, both on the ground and on modes. Divergence between production and consumption; repositioning. 20% of all containers. High value goods vulnerable to thefts, particularly between terminal and final destination. Illicit trade of goods, drugs and weapons, as well as for illegal immigration. $
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Container Shipping Costs and Cargo Value Products Items / 40 Foot Container Retail Value (USD) Freight / Value (%) Low High Low High Low High Clothing (low value) 90,000 130,000 225,000 520,000 0.56 1.91 Clothing (mid range) 25,000 60,000 500,000 3,600,000 0.08 0.86 Sports shoes 18,000 28,000 350,000 2,520,000 0.12 0.23 Bicycles 1,200 1,600 240,000 480,000 0.60 1.79 Toys (low quality) 20,000 60,000 60,000 720,000 0.40 7.17 Consumer electronics (small) 2,800 3,600 170,000 430,000 0.67 2.53 Consumer electronics (large) 240 480 70,000 140,000 2.07 6.14 Appliances (small) 600 1,200 45,000 100,000 2.90 9.56 Appliances (large) 100 130 30,000 65,000 4.16 14.33 Furniture (assembled) 250 600 20,000 150,000 1.93 21.50 Furniture (flat packed) 1,000 3,000 70,000 360,000 0.80 6.14 Automobile parts 600 15,000 50,000 375,000 0.77 8.60
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Containerized Cargo Flows along Major Trade Routes, 1995-2015 (in millions of TEUs) 04 04 05 05 06 07 07 08 09 11 12 13 14 13 11 12 12 13 14 16 17 04 04 03 03 03 04 03 03 04 04 04 05 05 07 06 07 07 07 08 07 07 02 03 03 04 04 05 05 05 07 08 09 11 13 14 12 13 14 14 14 15 15 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 03 04 04 04 04 05 05 06 06 06 06 07 07 07 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 01 02 02 02 02 02 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 02 02 02 02 02 03 03 03 03 03 04 04 04 03 03 03 03 04 04 04 04 0 10 20 30 40 50 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Asia-North America North America-Asia Asia-Europe Europe-Asia North America-Europe Europe-North America
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Containerized Imports and Exports between Main Economic Region, 2013 16,9 17,6 13,8 10,2 10,2 27,9 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Europe North America Asia Imports Exports
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Containerized Cargo Flows along Major Trade Routes, 2012 North America Asia Europe 13.3 (+175%) 6.9 (+48%) Million TEUs Growth (2006-2012) Imports (M TEUs) Exports (M TEUs) 3.6 (+23%) 2.7 (+55%) 6.3 (+178%) 13.7 (+293%) 16.0 10.5 17.3 9.0 13.1 27.0
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North American Containerized Trade with Asia, 1996-2012 (TEUs) 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 ,0 5,0 10,0 15,0 20,0 25,0 1995 1996 1997 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Ratio Million of TEUs of Loaded Containers Imports from Asia Exports to Asia Ratio Imports / Exports
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Value Per Ton of U.S. Freight Shipments by
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  • Spring '12
  • NguyenXuanLong,JohnLafferty

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