“party”, “celebration” represented what Filipinos liked procession, dance, music, theatrics, feasting pleasing to senses (sensual and graphic) Filipino Folk Catholicism vs. Spanish Catholicism FFC - very different interpretations of Christianity - absorbed as much as they could - shaped Filipino society; human dignity - formed social unity - 1767 – Archbishop of Manila replaced Spanish friars o response: not all accepted; there were revolts Babaylan Revolts - Tamblot of Bohol (1621-1622) o defeated by alkalde-maor of Cebu Juan de Alcaranzo and Cebuano soldiers - (Datu) Bangkaw of Leyte (1621-1622) o Bagali – Babaylan o defeated by Juan de Alcaranzo - Tapar of Panay o Christianized Ilonggo Babaylan o made own religion o Tapar: God almighty o own clergy and Virgin mary o Salaur + Laglag Rivers clergy was impaled with bamboo poles and put along these rivers SULTANATE OF MAGUINDANAO Muslim Mindanao - never completely colonized - focused on maritime trading and slave trading/raiding - Spain: economic & religious rival; militant Christianity - 1570 o interactions o Spain defeated Sulu o Treaty of Friendship – vassals of Spain - Esteban Rodriguez de Figueroa tried to conquer Mindanao – fail - 1599 to 19 th century – nonstop raids on Spanish colony - Spain-Moro relations = war o therefore; Mindanao/Sulu are violent people - other colonizers that failed o Dutch
o English 80 Years War (Dutch & Spain; 1566-1648) - Netherlands: former territory of Spain - a.k.a. Dutch War of Independence - 1579: Union of Utecht o unite Dutch provinces - 1602: Dutch West Indies Company o Coen -> Jayakarta -> Batavia -> Ja(ya)karta - Moluccas o Tidore & Spanish o Temate & Dutch (respect for each other’s religion) Spanish Dutch - ultra-Catholic - extravagant - Calvinist - thrifty - chose profit (dreamt of monopoly over spices; control of Moluccas) Dutch - trade with Maguindanao Maguindanao Politics - datu system Sultan o cannot be despotic (no absolute power) has consent from datus and royal family o diplomatic role negotiating; compromising; agreements o many advisers has secular and religious representatives Maguindanao - coastal; river valley [Pulagi] o good position for farming - peoples o Iranun o Manobo o Badjao o Lumad o many nations under one name - capital: Simoay - major trade: beeswax, rice Centralized Redistribution - sultan project - datu(s) had control over their people - collect tribute from people Leadership of Sultan Kudarat 1619: leadership of Sultan Muhammad Dipatuan Kudarat - brought people to prosperity through diplomacy 1637-1638: Spanish occupation of Sulu; Sebastian de Corcuera attacks Maguindanao & Sulu [moro-moro] 1639: Kudarat unites Iranun (Maranao) datus under him; hid out in mountains; guerilla warfare; protect the people first 1640s: Dutch renew attacks on the PH 1645: Kudarat negotiates with Jesuits a peace treaty with Spain; promulgated stability, trade, and wealth - Dutch (invited to build forts on Pulagi) vs. Spain
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- Spring '00
- Mindanao, Sultanate of Sulu, colonial, belief , Philippines Folk Music