replicated the previous study and found energetic cost to be Fig 1 The three

Replicated the previous study and found energetic

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replicated the previous study and found energetic cost to be Fig. 1 The three racing shoe models used in this study. a The NVF midsole comprises ZoomX foam made with polyether block amide, an embedded carbon-ff ber plate, 31  mm heel height, and 21  mm forefoot height; b ADI midsole comprises BOOST foam made with thermoplastic polyurethane, 23  mm heel height, and 13  mm fore- foot height; c NZM midsole comprises Cushlon foam made with ethylene-vinyl acetate, and a plastic horseshoe spike plate with four 6.35 mm stainless steel spikes. As a fourth shoe condition, we also added 30–35 g of lead weights to the NVF (NVF +) to equalize to the greater mass of the ADI shoes to examine the confounding effects of shoe mass on the energetic cost of running. NVF Nike Zoom Vaporffy 4%, ADI Adidas Adios BOOST 3, NZM Nike Zoom Matumbo 3
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333 Running Economy in Flats vs. Spikes 2.8% lower than the ADI shoe at 16 km·h −1 in 19 subjects ( p < 0.001) [ 11 ], however the shoes were not matched for mass. While the changes in biomechanics explained ~ 20% and 16% of the energetic differences, respectively, Hoog- kamer et al. suggested the mechanical properties of the Vaporffy shoes provided the best explanation for the meta- bolic energy savings [ 7 ]. Although the NVF shoe was designed for marathon run- ning on the roads, some athletes choose to wear a similar racing shoe during track racing, where traditionally a much lighter shoe with an embedded spike plate on the bottom mid-fore foot is worn. An examination of the foot-strike pat- terns at the 2017 USA Track and Field 10-km Championship shows that several elite male and female athletes appear to be wearing prototype versions of the Nike Vaporffy shoe on the track despite the additional weight of the shoe com- pared with that of a traditional track spike [ 14 ]. If indeed the NVF shoe decreases the energetic cost of running by several percent, it would make sense that these shoes could be uti- lized during both road and distance track racing. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if, and to what extent, the NVF shoes reduce the energetic cost of running (i.e. improve running economy) compared with established track spikes and marathon racing shoes. We compared the energetics and biomechanical characteristics of running in the NVF 4% with those of traditional track spikes, the Nike Zoom Matumbo 3 (NZM), and the successor of the shoes used to run the former offficial marathon world record, the Adidas Adios BOOST 3 (Fig.  1 ). Additionally, we translated any potential improvements in running economy to improve- ments in running performance using the hypothetical model described by Hoogkamer et al. [ 10 ] and based on data from Tam et al. [ 15 ]. 2 Methods 2.1 Subjects Twenty-four highly-trained runners [ 5 ] with a men’s shoe size of between US 6.5 and 12 completed the testing pro- tocol (Table  1 ). All participants had run a 5- and/or 10-km race under 15 or 30 min (men), respectively, or under 17:15 or 35:30 min (women), or an equivalent performance in a different distance-running event of between 3000 m and 25 km. The study was approved by Grand Valley State Uni-
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