Because the large states have most of the electoral

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maximize their votes. Because the large states have most of the Electoral College votes, candidates must spend  much of their time in these large states. In addition, since all of a state's electoral votes go to the candidate who gets  the most votes (in all states except two), candidates will spend more time in those states in which the popular vote  looks like it may be fairly close.  Money and Elections   Campaigning for the presidency, which is really campaigning in fifty-one separate elections, is a very costly endeavor.  By 2000, the funds raised by the major parties had increased by 73% over 1992 levels. Presidential campaign  finance is regulated by a set of laws and overseen by the Federal Election Commission. In addition, most candidates  for the presidency opt to abide by certain spending limits in order to get publicly financed matching funds.  In spite of all the attempts to democratize the system of campaign finance, there are still many loopholes in the  legislation. The system of soft money, issue advocacy, and independent expenditures meant to reformers that  campaign contributions still come from the wealthiest segment of the American population. The 2002 campaign  finance reform law banned soft money and restricted issue advocacy ads. However, opponents of the law promptly  challenged the law on constitutional grounds.  Election Reform   Americans can move the system in the direction of greater democracy by exercising their right to vote, campaigning,  gathering information, joining groups, protesting, and holding their politicians accountable.  Objectives: 
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Explain what the rationale behind the "motor-voter" law was and its impact upon voter turnout since 1995.  Review the progress being made in such African nations as Mali regarding free and democratic elections. Also,  review the salient characteristics of elections in Zimbabwe.  Understand the importance of political participation in a healthy democracy.  Identify the attempts to prevent the expansion of voting privileges to African-Americans in the South.  Identify those most likely to be active participants in the system and those who are least likely to be active  participants in our system.  Understand the ways in which suffrage has been expanded since the ratification of the Constitution.  Understand why voter turnout has declined and remains low. Also, differentiate between voter turnout in presidential  election years and in off-year elections.  Understand the way in which some states have attempted the implementation of a more direct democracy with  initiatives and referenda.  Know the four key influences on voter choice and be able to explain why these are primary influences. Also, explain 
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