References 1 bedi dg gombos ds ng cs singh s

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References 1. Bedi DG, Gombos DS, Ng CS, Singh S. Sonography of the eye. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2006; 187 : 1061–72. 2. Baum G, Greenwood I. The application of ultrasonic locating techniques to ophthalmology. II. Ultrasonic slit lamp in the ultrasonic visualization of soft tissues. Arch Ophthalmol 1958; 60 : 263–79. 3. Blaivas M, Theodoro D, Sierzenski PR. A study of bedside ocular ultra- sonography in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med 2002; 9 : 791–9. 4. Galetta S, Byrne SF, Smith JL. Echographic correlation of optic nerve sheath size and cerebrospinal fluid pressure. J Clin Neuroopthalmol 1989; 9 : 79–82. 5. Liu D, Kahn M. Measurement and relationship of subarachnoid pressure of the optic nerve to intracranial pressures in fresh cadavers. Am J Opthalmol 1993; 116 : 548–56. 6. Hansen HC, Helmke K. The subarachnoid space surrounding the optic nerves: an ultrasound study of the optic nerve sheath. Surg Radiol Anat 1996; 18 : 323–8. 7. Newman WD, Hollman AS, Dutton GN, Carachi R. Measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter by ultrasound: a means of detecting acute raised intracranial pressure in hydrocephalus. Br J Ophthalmol 2002; 86 : 1109–13. Reference Methods Results Notes Blaivas et al. 2002 [ 3 ] Patients with eye complaints presenting to the emergency department had ocular US performed in addition to usual standard of care evaluation. 26/61 patients had ocular pathology identified on US that facilitated ophthalmology referral or further testing. Bedside US is useful in the diagnosis of multiple ocular complaints and in identifying a variety of ocular pathology. 210 Diagnostic ultrasound Ocular ultrasound
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8. Blaivas M, Theodoro D, Sierzenski PR. Elevated intracranial pressure detected by bedside emergency ultrasonography of the optic nerve sheath. Acad Emerg Med 2003; 10 : 376–81. 9. Hansen H, Helmke K. Validation of the optic nerve sheath response to changing cerebrospinal fluid pressure: ultrasound findings during intrathecal infusion tests. J Neurosurg 1997; 87 : 34–40. 10. Neulander M, Tayal VS, Blaivas M, Norton J, Saunders T. Use of emer- gency department sonographic measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter to detect CT findings of increased intracranial pressure in adult head injury patients. Acad Emerg Med 2005; 12 : S1139. 11. Geeraerts T, Launey Y, Martin L, et al. Ultrasonography of the optic nerve sheath may be useful for detecting raised intracranial pressure after severe brain injury. Intensive Care Med 2007; 33 : 1704–11. 12. Kimberly HH, Shah S, Marill K, Noble V. Correlation of optic nerve sheath diameter with direct measurement of intracranial pressure. Acad Emerg Med 2008; 15 : 201–4. 13. Soldatos T, Karakitsos D, Chatzimichail K, et al. Optic nerve sonography in the diagnostic evaluation of adult brain injury. Crit Care 2008; 12 : R67. 14. Shah S, Kimberly HH, Marill KA, Noble VE. Ultrasound techniques to measure the optic nerve: is a specialized probe necessary? Med Sci Mon 2009; 15 (5): MT63–8.
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