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Prokaryotes can exchange genes directly between cells in a process known as horizontal gene transfer (HGT). In some cases this can occur between different species of bacteria and is one way of spreading antibiotic resistance.xlvi.Pilli are needed to exchange genes because the bacterial cell wall prevents two bacterial cells from fusing their membranes and exchanging genes.xlvii.conjugation- physical connection (conjugation tube) is made between two cells. The DNA on a plasmid is duplicated and the copied DNA is transferred. xlviii.transformation- direct uptake, incorporation and expression of exogenes DNA from its surroundings through membranexlix.transduction- injection of foreign DNA by a bacteriophage virus into a host bacteriumb.Protistsi.Protists- all eukaryotes that are not plants, fungi, or animalsii.a major subdivision within the Bacteria (PVC superphylum & Candidate Phyla Radiation) as well as anorigin of the Eukaryotes from within the Archaeaiii.the sister group to the Eukaryotes is a clade within the Archaea made up of the Thorarchaeota and Lokiarchaeota.iv.Loki, reveals that it is the most “eukaryote-like” prokaryote so far discovered. The study suggests thatthe ancestor of eukaryotes might have had an actin cytoskeleton and rudimentary internal structurescomposed of membranes.v.Malaria is caused by an alga.1.Malaria is caused by the apicomplexan protist Plasmodium. There are four species of Plasmodium known to infect humans, P. falciparum being the most deadly.2.“apicoplast” is a remnant chloroplast found in a group of parasitic protists known as apicomplexans. The most famous members of this group are Plasmodium (causative agent of malaria) and Toxoplasma ((causative agent of toxoplasmosis). The apicoplast has retained its own genome, which is now reduced to only 35kb in size and no longer contains genes for photosynthesis but none the less is still clearly derived from a chloroplast ancestor3.The synthetic equivalent of Quinine is known as chloroquine. For decades chloroquine was the preferred treatment for malaria.4.Since the early 1930’s the worldwide incidence of malaria had been declining but is now increasing= Plasmodium has evolved resistance to chloroquine