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Lecture 2 Nervous System Cells and their Proteins

Also take up and release ions nts appear to be key

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also take up and release ions, NT's appear to be key players in neurotransmission o Microglia: involved in response to injury or disease, remove debris, form scars dormant and small; dramatic respond to tissue injury; help get rid of waste products. Important for longevity of brain Parts of a Cell o Part of the Neuron “compartmentalizaton” = functional segregation = diff parts of the cell specialized in diff tasks cell body important for basic cellular function (metabolism, generating cellular energy from macromolecules) dendrites = input → receive info from other cells body = protein production initial segment = first part of the out put of the cell (the axon) Has specialized proteins that are critical for they dynamic changes in electrical properties (generation of action potentials). integration of all input info axon = conduction → moving info from place to place → sending electrical impulses along the length of the cell body (along the axon) terminal = output → were transmitters are released from the neurons into other cells o microstructure of soma (cell body) I few cut open a cell body, what we see in cell body → compartmentilization cells are complex structures that allow them to do fairly complicated procedures. Compartmentalization allows Specialization of cellular components
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important aspect of how cell bodies how they work is separation of diff microenvironments of the cell. Membranes not only form a physical barrier between diff parts of the brain, but allow those parts of the cell to regulate the internal environment o Cell (or Plasma) Membrane cells live in aqueous (water-based) environment but require ability to maintain internal state in a specific state this requires a barrier to outside of cell which is achieved by the cell membrane → defines intra vs extra cellular spaces formed from phospholipid bilayer –> effective membrane and barrier system → hydrophilic (phospho part) (interacts with water/environment) and hydrophobic (lipid part) (barrier to water and charged particles) o Cellular Membrane large amt of proteins → receptor channels pumps enzymes eg. channel proteins – allows certain chemical species to pass from outside of cell to inside. Through regulation of channel proteins cells can respond to differences in composition to chemicals and control specific rxns. Membrane proteins imp for communicating between cells membrane & protein are highly dynamic, by changing protein changes how cell will respond to outside membrane plays a critical role in communication between cells. An important aspect of the membrane is that it is dynamic; protein components change and move around = critical for neuroadpations. o
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also take up and release ions NTs appear to be key players...

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