●Plessy argued that Louisiana’s law mandating racial segregation on its trains was an unconstitutionalinfringement on both the privileges and immunities guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment and itsequal protection clause.■Legal Standards:●The Supreme Court disagreed with Plessy; the majority in the case upheld state-imposed racialsegregation.○They based their decision on the separate-but-equal-doctrine.●De jure vs. de facto segregation.○De facto segregation:government-imposed segregation.■Example: government assignment of whites to one school and blacks to another within the same community.○De jure segregation:segregation that is not the result of government influence.■Example: racial segregation resulting from residential patterns.○De jure segregationwas upheld in the Plessy v. Fergusoncase, and was dismantled in the Brown v. Board of Educationcase.●Civil Rights Movement.○Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King, Jr.■Rosa Parks:●Rosa Parks was a black woman living in Montgomery, Alabama where blacks were required to sit in theback of the bus while whites saturated in the front, both races converging as the bus filled withpassengers.○In December 1955, Parks boarded a city bus on her way home from work and took an availableseat in the front of the bus; she refused to give up her seat when the driver asked her to do so.■Martin Luther King, Jr.:●Martin Luther King, Jr. was a twenty-six year-old Baptist minister who led the Montgomery Bus Boycottwhich led to an end of segregated transportation systems.○Civil Rights Acts of 1964.27
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■Entitled all persons to “the full and equal enjoyment” of goods, services, and privileges in places of publicaccomodation, without discrimination on the grounds of race, color, religion, or national origin [the inclusion of“national origin” or place of birth would set in motion plans for immigration reform the following year].■Established the right to equality in employment opportunities.■Strengthened voting rights legislation.■Created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission [EEOC] and charged it with hearing and investigatingcomplaints of job discrimation.■Provided that funds could be withheld from federally assisted programs administered in a discriminatory manner.○Voting Rights Acts of 1965.■Empowered the attorney general to send voter registration supervisors to areas in which fewer than half the eligibleminority voters had been registered.■This act has been credited with doubling black voter registration in the South in only five years.○Fair Housing Act of 1968.■Banned discrimination in the renal and sale of most housing.○24th Amendment.■Banned poll taxes in primary and general elections for national office.●Native American citizenship (when did it happen? How were Native Americans seen by the national government before citizenship?)○Native Americans:■Received citizenship in 1924.
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