social psch objectives- CH 7

Fear arousing communications attempt to change

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Fear-arousing communications attempt to change people’s attitudes by arousing their fears Fear appeals promote attitude change when people believe listening to the message will teach them how to reduce this fear and are therefore more motivated to analyze the message carefully and perhaps have their attitudes changed centrally Fear appeals inhibit attitude change when they are so strong they overwhelm people making them defensive and unable to think rationally about the issue deny its importance (no way to reduce fear) 11. Describe the process whereby emotions act as heuristics to persuasion according to the heuristic-systematic model of persuasion. Heuristic-systematic model of persuasion- when emotions cause attitude change by acting as a signal for how we feel about something,
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often used with the peripheral route of persuasion. A heuristic is a simple rule people use to decide what their attitude is without having to spend a lot of time analyzing every little detail about the matter. Emotions and moods can act as heuristics: “how do I feel about it?” if we feel good we must have a positive attitude, if we feel bad it’s a no. 12. Identify the purpose of attitude inoculation. Identify a potential disadvantage of making people resistant to attitude change. Attitude inoculation- making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing them to small doses of the arguments against their position. If they have been inoculated at an early age they are less likely to view the world objectively and consider the validity of other arguments they might hear. 13. Discuss the role of reactance when persuasion attempts “boomerang.” Reactance theory- idea that when people feel their freedom to perform a certain behavior is threatened, an unpleasant state of reactance is aroused which they can reduce by performing the threatened behavior. Banned behaviors performed to restore their sense of personal freedom and choice 14. Describe the conditions under which attitudes predict spontaneous vs deliberative behaviors. Attitudes will predict spontaneous behaviors only when they are highly excessable (Attitude accessibility: the strength of the association between an object and an evaluation of it, which is typically measured by how fast people can report how they feel about an issue or an object. When accessibility is high, your attitude comes to mind whenever you see or think about the attitude object. When it is low, it comes more slowly.) the more direct experience people have with an attitude object the more accessible their attitude is, and the more accessible it is, the more likely their spontaneous behaviors will
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be consistent with their attitudes. Given enough time to think about an issue, even people with inaccessible attitudes can bring to mind how they feel. Theory of planned behavior: when people have time to contemplate how they are going to behave, the best predictor of their behavior is their intention, which is determined by three things- their attitudes toward the specific behavior, their subjective norms (how people think others will perceive their action), and their perceived behavioral control (how easy is the action).
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