will be warmer than the surrounding air at altitude. Because it is warmer, it is less dense and is prone to further ascent. o Stable : Temperature lapse rate is less than the dry adiabatic rate, but temperature decreases with altitude increase. o Unstable : Temperature lapse rate is greater than the dry adiabatic rate. It may be 6 degrees Fahrenheit or more. o Conditional stability: occurs when the environmental lapse rate is between the moist and dry adiabatic rates. The atmosphere is normally in a conditionally unstable stat e. Identify the requirements for cloud formation, basic elements of cloud categorization and the influence of stability on cloud type. A seasonal difference in clouds that comes about because of lake effect storms that curve down winds of the great lakes Grand Rapids is warmer in beginning of end of year relative to Maddison Clouds make it warmer because traps long wave radiation o Earth admits long wave, cloud absorbs it and then emits it back o Keeps it warmer even though it is blocking the sun What is a mid-latitude cyclone? A cyclone is an area of low pressure around which the winds flow counter clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. Our primary "weather" generator Associated with an area of low pressure and one or more fronts- cover a large area Have a life span of over a week Travel distances of 1000s of km Cyclogenesis : formation of a mid- latitude cyclone Mid latitude cyclones more stronger in winter because jet stream is further south so here we would get more in January What are the main types of air masses, where do they form and what role do they play in mid-latitude cyclones?
Large body of air whose physical properties are relatively uniform in the horizontal (>or equal to 1000km) classifications are based upon their source regions Categorized o Temperature Arctic Polar tropical o Humid (wet) or dry Maritime (wetter) Air mas often forming over water Continental (dryer) Often forming over land Arctic Often forming over ice o Dry air is not saturated What is severe weather? Snow storm, heat, hail, anything that lasts too long, freezing rain o There's an impact associated with it o Severe weather that is short in duration but big damage Who does it affect? o Urbanization o Poverty What are thunderstorms? Warm, moist air lifted and cooled and becomes buoyant (unstable) leading to towering cumulus, cumulonimbus clouds Factors that can contribute to severe storms o Warm, moist air (generally southerly flow) at low levels, drier colder air aloft, strong wind shear What are the classes of thunderstorms? Developing Stage o Usually little if any rain during this stage o Towering cumulus cloud indicated rising air o Lasts about 10 minutes o Occasional lightning Mature Stage o Most likely time for hail, heavy ran, frequent lightning, strong winds, and tornadoes o Storm occasionally has a black or dark green appearance o Lasts an average of 10 to 20 minutes but may last much longer in some storms Dissipating Stage o Rainfall decrease sin intensity o
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