Trna transfer rna allows protein assembly reads

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tRNA (transfer RNA): allows protein assembly; reads aminotides to make RNA Has two distinct ends where things have to match up o GACU = nucleotides One end of the molecule will have an amino acid attached to it On the other end there will be an anticodon region o Codon = 3 nucleotides in a row on an mRNA Each of these codons stands for one amino acid Signal for a particular amino acid to be added Job for mRNA is to recognize these codons and bring in the right amino acid Anticodon region will recognize every possible codon; the appropriate amino acid will already be attached to it
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11 Steps of translation o Initiation: tRNA, ribosome and mRNA come together Codon on mRNA pairs with anticodon on tRNA Always starts with AUG (methionine ); this is the start codon for almost every protein in our bodies On ribosome there are two sites P site = whatever protein that has already been made A site = the next transfer RNA that is waiting to be read o Peptide bond forms between amino acids Think of it as the string that holds together the mardi gras beads o tRNA at P site is released. tRNA at A site moves into P site. Another tRNA moves into now empty A site Everything that was attached to the A site moves down into the P site > everything moves down o Peptide bond forms between amino acids The A site will be available for the next amino acid The sequence happens the same way as before This sequence continues to happen until a stop codon Stop codons: UGA, UAG, UAA o Stop the sequence of translation o Stop making proteins o Ex: AUGCCUUUUAGAUGA There are 4 amino acids; the stop codon does not count as an amino acid; it just means to STOP - Protein synthesis o Human genetic code 64 possible codons UAA, UGA, UAG = stop codons AUG = start codon IMPORTANT: Each codon only codes for one amino acid but most amino acids are coded by more than codon Benefit of having more than one codon code for an amino acid: you can have a mutation in your DNA that will a lot of times make the same amino acid for that proteins; won’t result in huge health issues o Protein targeting Most of the sequences in your DNA code for certain stretches in the proteins to tell where they need to go - Posttranslational processing o Cleavage of amino acids o Addition of other chemical groups (addition of carbohydrates through glycosylation) o Many posttranslational modifications occur in the ER and Golgi apparatus o This provides your cells with a lot of diversification; same gene can code for several different proteins depending on how it gets processed - Genome and Proteome
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12 o The genome is all the genes in a particular individual or all the genes of a particular species Researchers believe humans have ~25,000 genes o The proteome is all the proteins that are produced from the genome More than 150,000 proteins are produced in the human body o Another reason why the human genome project gave confusing results o How can a gene code for more than one protein?
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