according to Figure 9 the Chi Square value for Vestigial x Sepia is x 2 2339

According to figure 9 the chi square value for

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according to Figure 9, the Chi-Square value for Vestigial x Sepia is x 2 = 2.339 but this time with 3 degrees of freedom. The probability of the value 2.339 with 3 degrees of freedom is between 60% and 50%, still with deviations that are not significant therefore we must accept the null hypothesis in favor of the 9:3:3:1 ratio. The final cross between a Wild Female x White Male has a Chi-Square value of x 2 = 6.5076 and 3 degrees of freedom. With this in mind, the probability of this instance is between 20% and 6%. Again, such deviations are not significant so we must accept the null hypothesis of a 1:1:1:1 ratio.
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Possible areas of error include natural human inaccuracy when scoring the flies. For instance, some of the F2 progeny might have been hidden in the food medium, killed without recording the data first, or simply miscounted for meaning our results would have been not as accurate as possible. Incorrectly identifying the phenotypes of the flies might have also greatly affected the results that were received. Chi-Square Analysis of the F2 Results Figure 8: The Chi-Square analysis for the F2 results of the F1 parents: Sepia and Wild Type Eyes. Figure 9: The Chi-Square analysis for the F2 results of the F1 parents: Vestigial Wings and Sepia Eyes. Figure 10: The Chi-Square analysis for the F2 results of the F1 parents: Female Wild Eyes and Male White Eyes.
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Discussion The results of the F1 generation and the F2 progeny strongly support my original hypothesis about how the various alleles are inherited, whether dominant or recessive and sex- linked or autosomal. Aforesaid in the results section, from the parental cross of sepia eyes and red eyes, all the F1 progeny have only red eyes and no flies had sepia eyes. As the P generation was true-breeding, the F1 progeny had to be heterozygous and only the dominant trait would be shown in the F1 flies. From this, red eyes were the only trait shown, therefore red eyes or the wild type is dominant and sepia eyes are a recessive autosomal allele. From Table 2 with the cross between vestigial wings and sepia eyes, only one trait is mutated, all the F1 progeny had normal wings and red eyes meaning the vestigial wing allele must be recessive and inherited through autosomal means. The result of the flies only have red eyes serve as further evidence that the sepia allele is recessive. Finally, with regards to Table 3, all the males have white eyes and all the females have red eyes. This extreme deviation means that the white-eyed allele must be sex-linked or specifically X-linked. A Chi-Square analysis of the F2 progeny results also depict that all the allele inheritance are due by chance and chance only from independent assortment and recombination of alleles because no significant statistical deviation is present.
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