6 begging the question four ways assuming what youre

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6 - Begging the Question (four ways) - assuming what you’re trying to prove (i) Circular Argument - a conclusion can’t be a premise in its own argument - begging the question can also occur when the truth of a premise requires the conclusion for its truth (aka vicious circle, circular logic) (ii) Question-Begging Definition (not in Engel) - here you try to settle an issue by defining a term in such a way that you make your point “true by definition” (iii) Question-Begging Epithets (epithet: a word or short phrase used to describe something, a descriptive label) - it’s possible to beg the question with only one word, a word that assumes what you are or should be trying to prove - fallacy of question-begging epithets looks similar to abusive ad hominem but there is a sub - tle difference - the difference is that with ad hominem you’re rejecting their argument because they’re defective, whereas with question-begging epithets you’re supporting your own conclu- sion by begging the question with epithets - question-begging epithets can be flattering as well as insulting (iv) Loaded Question (Engel’s Complex Question ) - here you beg the question by asking a question - Special Pleading - here you are making a special exception for yourself, applying a double standard : one for ourselves (because we are special), and one for others (because they are not) - False Analogy (aka Faulty Analogy) - argument by analogy in itself is legitimate, with a probabilistic conclusion - if A has features a, b, c, and they’re relevant to d, and B has features a, b, c, then B probably has d - the fallacy is when the points of analogy are irrelevant to the conclusion - False Cause - (i) post hoc ergo propter hoc (after this, therefore because of this) - Engel lists non causa pro causa as an equivalent Latin tag - (ii) cum hoc ergo propter hoc (with this, therefore because of this) - jumping from correlation to causation - the fallacy is committed because the correlation has basically four different possible ex- planations (one caused the other, the other is the cause, there is a third, common cause of the correlation, coincidence) - Slippery Slope - arguing that something might not be bad, but it leads to something else, which leads to
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7 something else, which is bad, so we ought not to allow the first thing - a fallacy if there is a weak link in the argument - Engel (p. 190) has Irrelevant Thesis : do NOT use, instead use the distinction below (which is also in Engel) - Red Herring - red herring is when you try to change the main issue to a related but irrelevant issue - Straw Person (very poor in Engel) - attacks a distortion of the opponent’s argument
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8 Conceptual Analysis Lecture 1 - fact - how things are in the world - something that can be proven, established, shown to be true - value - the way things ought or ought not to be - morals - terms such as “good,” “bad,” “right,” “wrong,” “justice,” “rights,” etc.
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  • Summer '12
  • Cauchi
  • Symposium, Conceptual question

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