Part of the reason for their stance is the feeling of

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Part of the reason for their stance is the feeling of vulnerability and the consequent belief that the risks and costs of inaction are unacceptably high. many people who opposed invading Iraq before September 11, altered their positions afterwards
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Understanding the Bush Doctrine  17:53 Those who had studied the sub- ject were, of course, surprised by the timing and method of the attacks, but not that they took place in response to an accusation that he always wanted to invade Iraq, Bush replied: “prior to September 11, we were discussing smart sanctions. . . . After September 11, the doctrine of containment just doesn’t hold any water. fact that no one can guarantee that an adversary with WMD will not use them means that fear cannot be banished Psychology plays an important role here because people value certainty and are willing to pay a high price to decrease the probability of a danger from slight to none. Unilateralism other states have every reason to let the dominant power carry the full burden Unilaterialism also has deep roots in the non-northeastern parts of the Republican party, was well represented in the Reagan administration American leaders have made it clear that they will forego the participation of any particular country rather than compromise Even before September 11, Bush displayed little willingness to cater to world public opinion or to heed the cries of outrage from European countries as the United States interpreted its interests and the interests of the world in its own way. Thus, the Bush administration walked away from the Kyoto treaty, the International Criminal Court, and the protocol implementing the ban on biological weapons rather than try to work within these frameworks and modify them As long as leadership is shared, very little will happen because no one actor will be willing to shoulder the costs and the responsibilities Clinton called for “lift and strike” in Yugoslavia. But because he believed in sharing power and was unwilling to move on his own, he sent Secretary of State Warren Christopher to ascertain European views. This multilateral and democratic procedure did not work because the Europeans did not want to be put on the spot; in the face of apparent American indecision, they refused to endorse such a strong policy. If the United States had informed the Europeans rather than consulted them, they probably would have complained, but gone along; what critics call unilateralism often is effective leadership. strong opposition of allies to overthrowing Saddam was an advantage as well as a disadvantage to Bush gave the United States the opportunity to demonstrate that it would override strenuous objections from allies if this was necessary to reach its goals American Hegemony
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Understanding the Bush Doctrine  17:53 Hegemony is implied when the Nuclear Posture Review talks of dissuading future military competitors. At first glance, this seems to refer to Russia and China. But the point applies to the countries of Western Europe as well, either individually or as a unit.
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