O employment only 3 of people had cognitively

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o Employment – only 3% of people had cognitively demanding professions in 1900 Now 35% of Americans have cognitively demanding professions We meet demands of employment in modern world by being cognitively flexible There are more people in these jobs, but the jobs have also been upgraded over the years Moral debate has escalated in America since we take the hypothetical seriously o Without the hypothetical, it’s difficult to get a moral argument started We universalize our principles – we state them as abstractions and use logic on them o You cannot just treat moral principles as concrete entities – they are universals consistent w/ logic The IQ test is focused on classification, using logic on abstractions, and using hypothetical seriously o Similarities Subtest of Wechsler – focused on classification, enormous gains have been made in this o Raven’s Progressive Matrices – focused on using logic on abstractions, involves analogies If you are ignorant of history and other countries, you can’t do politics o Young Americans read less history, less literature, and less material about foreign lands – ahistorical 20th century has shown enormous cognitive reserves in ordinary people Brain Training Doesn’t Make You Smarter Cognitive training or brain training is a hot new trend w/ apps like Lumosity, Cogmed, BrainHQ o There is no solid evidence that brain training can make you smarter or make your life better o Brain games don’t alter neural functioning in ways that improve general cognitive performance When people practice a task, they get better on that task and similar tasks but not on other tasks o Any intelligence gains were modest compared to amount of training required to produce them Study had young adults complete reasoning test to assess fluid intelligence ability to solve novel problems o Participants assigned to control group or treatment group & practiced a computerized task o “Dual n-back” task requires you to monitor 2 streams of info – one auditory & one visual Training group shows more improvement in reasoning test than control group – large gain o Longer you train short-term memory, more improvement you get in IQ o Magnitude of reported gain seemed larger than possible causing skeptics o It takes years of intensive intervention to increase IQ by a few points Study had multiple flaws which make the results difficult to interpret
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o (1) No placebo control group
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