CHEM 151 study guide for all chapters

2 describe briefly 50 words or less the mechanism of

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2. Describe briefly (50 words or less) the mechanism of action of vancomycin.
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3. Give the names of the three research groups responsible for the chemical synthesis of vancomycin, or vancomycin aglycon. 4. Depict the aldol reaction with formulas and name three synthetic organic chemists whose work contributed to its development as a powerful synthetic tool.
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Chapter 32: Thiostrepton 1. Name three molecules used in veterinary medicine today. 2. Mention three mechanisms by which antibiotics exert their action against bacteria and point out the one operating in the case of thiostrepton. 3. Name the scientists who are associated with the following accomplishments. a) The X-ray crystallographic analysis of the yeast RNA polymerase II transcribing complex b) The total synthesis of thiostrepton c) The biosynthesis of thiostrepton
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Chapter 33: Small Molecule Drugs 1. Modern drug discovery and development is a challenging process that can only take place when the different branches of science join forces. Outline the critical roles of the following groups of players (50 words or less, for each). a) Biologists b) Chemists c) Physicians
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2. Give an example (name, clinical indication, and molecular structure) for each of the following classes of small molecule drugs. 3. Name and draw the molecular structures of four antiviral drugs.
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4. Briefly name the contribution for which each of the following groups of scientists received a Nobel Prize (10 words or less). a) James Watson and Francis Crick (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1962) b) Sir James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion, and George H. Hitchings (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1988) c) Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro, and Ferid Murad (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1998) d) J. Robin Warren and Barry J. Marshall (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2005) 5. Write an informative paragraph (100 words or less) about Alfred Nobel and name the six subjects that are recognized by the Nobel Prize every year.
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6. Draw the molecular structure for each of the following drugs and indicate for which medical condition they are used.
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Chapter 34: Biologics 1. Briefly define (10 words or less) the terms ‘Small Molecule Drug’ and ‘Biological Drug’ and assign the following drugs to their proper category: Herceptin ® , Enbrel ® , Epogen, Insulin, Measles vaccine, Tagamet ® , Valium ® , Invirase ® , Propranolol, Crixivan ® , Luminal ® (phenobarbital) I. Small Molecule Drug II. Biological Drug 2. Describe the contributions of five of the following scientists (10 words or less for each), whose work collectively provided the foundation for the birth of biotechnology and for which some of them were awarded a Nobel Prize. a) James Watson and Francis Crick b) Paul Berg c) H. Gobind Khorana d) Frederick Sanger e) Walter Gilbert f) Kary Mullis g) Stanley Cohen
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h) Edward Jenner i) Dennis Slamon j) Marvin H. Caruthers 3. Name two major biotechnology companies in the United States and mention two biological drug products for each. I. II.
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