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This positive meaning of freedom leads us to an important distinction between: - Essential Freedom: the capacity to exercise a determinate control over our actions through the operations of moral meaning.- Effective Freedom: the limits of that capacity. What are these limits? Abilities, skills, virtues, feelings, inclinations, that is, our moral foundations.Identifying the kind of knowledge involved in moral knowingDescribing moral knowledge is like trying to describe a friend or a loved one. We quickly come to realize that neither our friend nor loved one is the noun or adjectives we use to describe him or her. We realize we can't capture him or her in static words. He or she is much more.Moral knowledge is similar. It is not a quality of rightness or wrongness as if that existed independent of actions or independent of persons.Moral knowledge is not an add on as if it is something added on to other aspects of human living.Understanding why moral knowledge is always social and how that plays out in concrete living
We first have concrete insights into a specific problem or concern and from that, principles or general theories are developed. This is how we learn ethics in our lives.We move from concrete insights into particular experiences to principles and deeper, more complex insights, etc. which link with other diverse experiences.So, there is an expansion happening. Our concrete insights build on one another and skill at moral deliberation grows. As our moral knowledge grows and develop, we also are growing and developing as persons.Social structures (what we did in our study guide question)Lesson 7: Evil and Human SinfulnessIdentifying what is meant by evil-that which is injurious, painful, hurtful, or calamitous.-morally bad or unacceptable. Sinful. Wicked. Vicious. Corrupt.that which impedes the achievement of goals, ideals, happiness, or general well-being.-misfortune3 forms:1-Betrayal2-Delusion3-TerrorIdentifying human sinfulness and structural evilSin: an act which is regarded as a transgression of the divine law and an offence against God; a violation of some religious or moral principle.-Formal sin: Here, an act must be deliberate and voluntary. The act of stealing when done deliberately and strictly for personal gain is an example of formal sin.-Material sin: Here, an act may be wrong materially, from an objective point of view (for example, stealing) but the person who performed theact cannot be judged as completely responsible. (He or she may have been driven to steal because of desperate poverty and a family that
needed feeding.)-Structures of evil have to do with horizons. As we have already seen, moral knowing goes on within horizons. It is possible to get beyond or to expand our moral horizons.Understanding human beings as developmental and exploring what is meant by the “surplus of evil”Example: Atomic bombs the us made.