jurafsky&martin_3rdEd_17 (1).pdf

2221 i tem it has increased f inal state to having

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(22.21) [ I TEM It] has increased [ F INAL STATE to having them 1 day a month]. (22.22) [ I TEM Microsoft shares] fell [ F INAL VALUE to 7 5/8]. (22.23) [ I TEM Colon cancer incidence] fell [ D IFFERENCE by 50%] [ G ROUP among men]. (22.24) a steady increase [ I NITIAL VALUE from 9.5] [ F INAL VALUE to 14.3] [ I TEM in dividends] (22.25) a [ D IFFERENCE 5%] [ I TEM dividend] increase ... Note from these example sentences that the frame includes target words like rise , fall , and increase . In fact, the complete frame consists of the following words:
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384 C HAPTER 22 S EMANTIC R OLE L ABELING Core Roles A TTRIBUTE The A TTRIBUTE is a scalar property that the I TEM possesses. D IFFERENCE The distance by which an I TEM changes its position on the scale. F INAL STATE A description that presents the I TEM ’s state after the change in the A TTRIBUTE ’s value as an independent predication. F INAL VALUE The position on the scale where the I TEM ends up. I NITIAL STATE A description that presents the I TEM ’s state before the change in the A T - TRIBUTE ’s value as an independent predication. I NITIAL VALUE The initial position on the scale from which the I TEM moves away. I TEM The entity that has a position on the scale. V ALUE RANGE A portion of the scale, typically identified by its end points, along which the values of the A TTRIBUTE fluctuate. Some Non-Core Roles D URATION The length of time over which the change takes place. S PEED The rate of change of the V ALUE . G ROUP The G ROUP in which an I TEM changes the value of an A TTRIBUTE in a specified way. Figure 22.3 The frame elements in the change position on a scale frame from the FrameNet Labelers Guide (Ruppenhofer et al., 2010) . VERBS: dwindle move soar escalation shift advance edge mushroom swell explosion tumble climb explode plummet swing fall decline fall reach triple fluctuation ADVERBS: decrease fluctuate rise tumble gain increasingly diminish gain rocket growth dip grow shift NOUNS: hike double increase skyrocket decline increase drop jump slide decrease rise FrameNet also codes relationships between frames, allowing frames to inherit from each other, or representing relations between frames like causation (and gen- eralizations among frame elements in different frames can be representing by inher- itance as well). Thus, there is a Cause change of position on a scale frame that is linked to the Change of position on a scale frame by the cause relation, but that adds an A GENT role and is used for causative examples such as the following: (22.26) [ A GENT They] raised [ I TEM the price of their soda] [ D IFFERENCE by 2%]. Together, these two frames would allow an understanding system to extract the common event semantics of all the verbal and nominal causative and non-causative usages. FrameNets have also been developed for many other languages including Span- ish, German, Japanese, Portuguese, Italian, and Chinese.
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