Didn’t support charity (poverty = godly rejection) Catholicism: traditional European religion Less materialistic than Calvinism Passive otherworldly view Rational Social Organization Weber : rationality is foundation of Industrial Revolution, capitalism 7 traits of rational society 1. Distinctive social institutions – e.g. healthcare 2. Large-scale organizations 3. Specialized workforce 4. Personal discipline 5. Time awareness 6. Technical competence 7. Impersonality – b/c of technology Bureaucracy: modern society defined by large organizations Related to capitalism Labor unions, church, university… Specific goals in mind Rationality – alienation Marx : alienation from social inequality Weber : bureaucracy led to impersonal relations, pessimistic about future Crushed human spirit Durkheim: Society & Function Society beyond Ourselves We are shaped by society Human behavioral patterns are social facts Society as System Social facts/patterns impact society’s operation
Crime is vital to society – morality, discipline, guilt, laws, behaviour Society in Ourselves Society forms personality Provides moral discipline Prevents collapse under desire/instinct Less social ties = higher suicide rate (youth, wealth, fame) Modernity and Anomie Anomie: society gives little moral guidance to people Destruction by fame Desires balanced by guidance of society Higher suicide rates recently Labour Division ( Durkheim ) Pre-industrial society: tradition = glue Mechanical solidarity: social bond from common sentiments, values Collective conscience strong Based on likeness Industrial: weaker mechanical solidarity Organic solidarity: social bonds from specialization, interdependence Less bound by tradition Based on disparities between people Rely on others Division of labour: specialized economy More efficient societies Depend more on less trusted people More about functional interdependence Less about moral consensus, common sentiments More anomie, less morality Durkheim optimist, Marx/Weber pessimists 4 Societal Visions How societies held together: culture, tradition, interdependence Lenski : shared culture - Complex tech, more inequality
Marx : social division b/c of class differences - Production must be cooperative Weber : shared worldview - Rationalization Durkheim: focused on mechanical/organic solidarity -
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- Fall '19
- Sociology, Weber