Biologial explanation for poverty is that the poor

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-biologial explanation for poverty is that the poor are innately inferior -Jensen, Hernstein, and Murray → agreed certain categories of people are disadvantaged because they are less endowed (social Darwinism) -Another explanation blames the poor for their poverty → culture- of-poverty hypothesis
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-poor are qualitatively different in values and lifestyles from the successful that prevents them from social motility → the persistence of poverty from generation to generation -critics charge that in blaming the victim, both theories ignore how social conditions trap individuals in groups → the problem lies in the way society is organized to advantage some and disadvantage others Key Terms Caste System : system of social stratification (ancient india) -birth into a particular family determines one’s caste position which in turn establishes one’s social position, work, and range of marriage partners -Untouchables are at the bottom of the system and they do the dirty work Social Differentiation : process of categorizing people by age, height, occupation, and other personal attribute Social Stratification : people ranked in a vertical hierarchy that differentiates them as superior or inferior -difference between differentiation and stratification is the process of ranking or evaluation occurs only in the latter Life Chances : chances throughout one’s life cycle to live and to experience the good things in life -things that 1) better off people can purchase and which poor people would also purchase if they had the money 2) make life easier, longer, healthier, and more enjoyable Social Class : implies having or not having the following individual rights, privileges, power, right over others, authority,life choices, self-determination, status, wealth, access to services, comfort leisure, etc. Privilege : Distribution of goods and services, situations,and experiences that are highly valued and beneficial -class privilege are those advantages, prerogatives, and options that are available to those in middle and upper classes Race : socially defined on the basis of a presumed common genetic heritage resulting in distinguishing physical characteristics Ethnicity :condition of being culturally rather than physically distinguished Gender : pattering of difference and domination through distinctions between man and women Sex-gender system : stratification system that assigns gender roles -combines biologically based sex roles with socially created gender roles sex roles : behaviors determined by an individual’s biological sex Gender Roles : social constructions: contain self-concepts and psychological traits, as well as family, occupational, and political roles assigned dichotomously to each sex Patriarchy : a system of society or government in which men hold the power and women are largely excluded from it.
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