Declining american idealism in east asia o american

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Declining American Idealism in East Asia o American engagement in East Asia in the 1940s was influence by American idealistic lenses o But after the WWII, the USA gradually disengaged from Asia o Washington’s decreased support for Chiang Kai-shek reflected its desire of disengagement
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o The USA was pulling troops out of South Korea after 1945 o East Asia: (American half-hearted support for the Nationalists) In 1949 – Dean Acheson publicly excluded South Korea from the American “defense perimeter” in the Pacific (Syngman Phee’s regime was expendable?) June 1950 – North Korea’s invasion of South Korea (ROC) hardened the US containment policy around the globe The Korean War strengthened Sino-Soviet alliance and China’s intervention to assist the North Korean comrades inspired other communist movements like Viet Minh (Ho Chi Minh) 2. Discuss the breakdown of the Sino-Soviet Alliance. Describe the historical relationship and the competing explanations of the breakdown in 1969. Background o 1950-1956 – the party-military-economic relations were good despite China’s growing resentment China was very dependent on the Soviets on all fronts Raw materials Military – needed help professionalizing the military o 1950-1960 – 7,000 Soviet’s trained Chinese military o Moscow included the Chinese Communist Party in the international communist camp o The military alliance provided China’s important deterrence against the USA in the NE Asia and the French in Indochina o China adopted the Soviet economic model until 1956; by 1960 – on top of substantial economic aid, nearly 60% of Chinese foreign trade was the Soviet Union
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After the Korean War ended – Soviet Union demanded pay back all the debt o Stalin died in 1953 Khrushchev 1956-66 Sino-Soviet Split o Security issues Beijing’s anger with Moscow over the Soviet handling of the Korean War (1950-53) Beijing’s leaders did not consult Moscow when they initiated the Taiwan Strait Crisis in the 1950s Violations of the Sino-Soviet alliance which required mutual consultation Socialist High Tide 1955-56 o Mao called for the Soviet style “collectivization” to increase agricultural production through large-scale farming o The nationalization of all industrial enterprises was accelerated o SHT brought about undesired effect-the decline in agricultural production and the resultant famine o Not only did Mao refuse to admit his mistake, in 1956, Mao promoted his personality cult similar to that of Stalin o Goal was societal productivity Ideological and personality conflict between Khrushchev and Mao o February 25, 1956 – Khrushchev “de-Stalinization” caused Mao to fear possible condemnation of his mistakes and opposition within the CCP o Khrushchev’s Soviet policy of peaceful coexistence with the USA was viewed by Mao as a “revisionist line” and undermined the anti-imperialist rationale of the Sino-Soviet alliance
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Competing explanations for breakdown o Security factors Realist tend to focus on security (balance of power) Realist viewpoint USSR threaten China o
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  • Fall '08
  • staff
  • Cold War, sino-soviet alliance

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