Conceptualization: Specifying what we mean (ie: to define someone as black, we define that that means they must be at least 75% black), verb that connects us from the concept to the construct Operational definition: definition that assigns meaning to a concept, construct, or variable by specifying the activities or operations necessary to measure the construct, concept, or variable 3. What is a variable? (p.26-27) What is a constant? (p.76-77) List and briefly describe the four steps you should take when selecting variables. (p.77) (book and lecture) variable: anything that you are going to be manipulating or studying, a symbol to which numerals or values are assigned constant is a concept that does not change Four steps you should take: 1. examine the theories that are relevant to our research question to identify those concepts that would be expected to have some bearing on the phenomenon we are investigating 2. Review the relevant research literature and assess the utility of variables used in prior research 3. consider the constraints and opportunities for measurement that associated with the specific settings we will study 4. look ahead to our analysis of the data. What role will each variable play in our analysis? 4. What does it mean when response values are mutually exclusive? (p.82) Exhaustive? (p.82) (book) Mutually exclusive: when a variable's attributes (or values) can be classified as having only one attribute. Exhaustive: every case can be classified as having at least one attribute or value for the variable. 5. What is a scale? (p.83-84) What is an index? (p.83-84) How are they different? Why are they used? (book and lecture) Index: a composite measure based on summing, averaging, or otherwise combining the responses to multiple questions that are intended to measure the same concept. (averaging responses to the questions so that every questions counts equally.) Scale: give different weights to the responses to different questions before summing or averaging the responses. (questions based on some basis to be more important for the underlying concept contribute more to the composite score…) 6. What is "content analysis"? (p.85) What are the strengths and weaknesses of content analysis? (book and lecture) Content analysis: a research method for systematically analyzing and making inferences from text Strengths: 7. What are unobtrusive measures (nonreactive research)? (p.86) Give examples. (p.86) (book) a measurement based on physical traces or other data that are collected without the knowledge or participation of the individuals or groups that generated the data. ex. a mechanic checks your radio stations you have programmed in your car so they can target those stations for advertising. A quick look at people’s hands could help you see who does heavy manual work (by callouses on their hands) 8. What is the purpose of triangulation? (p.87) (book) The use of multiple methods to study one research question 9. What is the difference between direct measurement and indirect measurement? Why is direct
measurement more accurate? (lecture) *10. What are the four basic levels of measurement? Be able to define and give examples of each. (p.88-
Want to read all 21 pages?
Want to read all 21 pages?
- Fall '08