Durkheim believed sociology was to be the scientific

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Durkheim believed sociology was to be the scientific study of social facts, those things  larger than the individual The Origins of Modern Sociology in Germany: Ferdinand Tonnies, Max Weber,  and Karl Marx Ferdinand Tonnies two basic categories of social relationships: gemeinschaft (communal)  – family, friends, romance.  Relationships based on feelings  of affection gesellschaft (goal-driven)  – teachers, employers, associates. Relationships intended  to benefit or achieve a certain goal in modern society, proportionally more relationships were gesellschaft than  gemeinschaft the type of the relationship determines the rules of the relationship Max Weber The two social relationship proportion shift was categorized by Weber into two  behavioral trends: Rational behavior - calculating, have a goal and plot how to achieve it
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Nonrational behavior - noncaculating, not geared towards specific goal but for the  experience and appreciation In the modern world, more actions are rational than nonrational Karl Marx  People of any society divided into two classes: Bourgeoisie-  owned the means of production Proletariat-  the workers Believed people would realize the injustice of the economic system, realize the  unimportance of religion, and it would disappear Marx Influence: “Marxist” sociologists have made important contributions to sociology Marx’s work had huge impact on sociology because of its influence on Weber (looking  beyond economic/material things but also the influence of ideas and values) The Origins of Modern Sociology in England: Herbert Spencer Herbert Spencer Survival of the fittest - basic thesis that if we simply leave people alone to compete, the  best will survive and the inferior will perish Believed this would only work as long as people didn’t interfere with the natural course  of things Sociology in the United States US sociologists concentrated on solving specific problems, instead of the European  style of sweeping theories.  
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European- basic science  (like chemistry, biology) U.S.- applied science  (like engineering) Jane Addams Conducted research into the causes and consequences of poverty activisit W. E. B. DuBois Believed Marx overlooked racial differences, insisting they were even more important  than economic differences
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Chapter 4: Who’s Afraid of Sociology? 23:40 Definitions Empirical-  things that can be observed through the use of one’s physical senses Max Weber (inconvenient facts)-  evidence that contradicts one’s own beliefs about the  social world Ethnocentrism-  process of judging other peoples and their customs and norms as  inferior to one’s own people customs and norms Culture shock-
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