DSST Anthropology as a Discipline

Although no such fossil tools have yet been found it

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Although no such fossil tools have yet been found, it is believed that H. erectus probably made tools of wood and bone as well as stone. About 700,000 years ago, a new Lower Paleolithic tool, the hand ax , appeared. The earliest European hand axes are assigned to the Abbevillian industry, which developed in northern France in the valley of the Somme River; a later, more refined hand-ax tradition is seen in the Acheulian industry, evidence of which has been found in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Alongside the hand-ax tradition there developed a distinct and very different stone-tool industry, based on flakes of stone: special tools were made from worked (carefully shaped) flakes of flint. In Europe, the Clactonian industry is one example of a flake tradition. The early flake industries probably contributed to the development of the Middle Paleolithic flake tools of the Mousterian industry, which is associated with the remains of Neanderthal man. Because many Neanderthal burial sites contain the remains of food , tools and other objects it is thought that they believed in an afterlife. Researchers have found burial grounds of Neanderthal man dating to 60,000 BC with flower fragments next to the corpse and animal antlers on the body indicating some type of ritual and funeral gifts.
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Tools associated with mammoth kills are known as the Clovis complex. The mammoth (now extinct)was a huge elephant. The Clovis complex included knives, bone tools, scrapers and the Clovis projectile point. The Clovis was large, leaf shaped and flaked on both sides. The Folsom point was a smaller projectile than the Clovis point and was used to hunt large straight horned bison. The straight horned bison replaced the mammoth as the major game animal after the mammoth became extinct. The first examples of the Clovis point were found in Clovis, New Mexico in 1929 . Both the Clovis and Folsom points were found in New Mexico. The Folsom point was first discovered in Folsom, New Mexico in 1927. The Upper Paleolithic Period (beginning about 40,000 years ago) was characterized by the emergence of regional stone-tool industries, such as the Perigordian, Aurignacian, Solutrean, and Magdalenian of Europe, as well as other localized industries of the Old World and the oldest known cultures of the New World. Principally associated with the fossil remains of such anatomically modern humans as Cro-Magnons, Upper Paleolithic industries exhibit greater complexity, specialization, and variety of tool types and the emergence of distinctive regional artistic traditions. Small sculptured pieces evidently dominated the Upper Paleolithic artistic traditions of eastern Europe; typical were small, portable clay figurines and bone and ivory carvings. The works from this area include simple but realistic stone and clay animal figurines, as well as carved stone statuettes of women, referred to by scholars as Venus figures. These small, stylized figures are characteristically rotund, emphasizing parts of the female body associated with sexuality and fertility; many are so abstract that only protuberant breasts and exaggerated hips are clearly distinguishable.
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